The Normal Bacterial Flora of Humans
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Microorganisms in the healthy human body and living without damaging the organism-Ma communities, the body's normal germ Flora is called. There are two kinds of flora in the organism. These are permanent and temporary flora. Permanent flora is the flora found in certain parts of the body according to certain ages, usually fixed. It's important to know the body flora. Knowing the microorganisms present in the flora in the infected region emphasizes the importance of microorganisms isolated from an infection site. Flora bacteria make it difficult for pathogenic microorganisms to reproduce. Groups in various parts of the human body that do not harm or even benefit the organism are called normal flora of the body. Different parts of the human body have different flora.
The Permanent Flora is a flora that usually does not change, even if it is removed by force, and which is re-formed in a short time. As long as they remain in the flora under Normal conditions, they are called opportunist pathogens, which do not cause disease but in appropriate conditions (drop of resistance, chemotherapy, deterioration of flora balance).
Importance of permanent flora
Microrganisms in the permanent flora are commensal. Some of them synthesize vitamin K, helping to digest nutrients. They perform protective effects on the mucous membranes and skin preventing the settling of pathogens through persistent flora “interferens”.
Interferens: specific epithelial receptors are saturated by the skin flora, others cannot hold. They compete with pathogenic bacteria for nutrients and habitation sites.
Transient Flora is a collection of microorganisms that disappear after several hours, days, or even weeks, most apatogens, some pathogens, besides permanent flora in various parts of the body. It does not occur again after it is lost. Most are opportunistic pathogens. Most microorganisms in the flora are commensal, some mutual. Some protect us from outside disease.
Places of Flora
They are found in floor areas such as armpit, groin, and under the breast of women. The flora does not disappear with the bath, they are re-formed after surgical sterilization. They depend on moisture, pH, sweat and dressing.
Flora Of The Mouth
Teeth are different before and after they come out. Before teeth come out, Staphylococci, Streptococci, Neisseria group bacteria, Corine bacteria, after teeth come out, anaerobes, Bacterioides, fuziform bacilli, are seen. Tooth decay comes to meyadana due to acids created by bacteria of the genus Streptococcus and peptostreptococcus.
Digestive Tract Flora
It is a sparse flora formed by streptococci, staphylococci, salivary and nutrients in the esophagus that do not do hemolysis in the pharynx. There are no microorganisms in the stomach due to the acid environment. Only hellbacter pylori is found inside the mucus layer. In the intestinal flora, starting from the duodenum to the thick intestine, an increasing number of flora bacteria. 10-20% of feces is made up of bacteria. 96-99% of the flora is made up of anaerobic bacteria. The gut flora are bacteria that are little known but are actually described in medicine as a second brain. These bacteria cause weight loss, behavioral disorders, allergies, obesity, anxiety, depression, as well as various neurological or psychological problems. A lot of things, from food to sleep quality, affect gut flora. The intestines, today described as the 'second brain', are the most important organ of the immune system.
In the nose, Alpha hemolytic streptococci, Neisseria, staphylococci, diphteroid basillae. The larynx and trachea are reduced as they descend, not found in the bronchi.
Corynebacterium xerosis, Moraxella, Staphylococci, Streptococci. The flora of Vagina varies depending on age. Maternal hormones after birth are aerobic lactobacilli (Doederlein bacilli) similar to that of the mother. Mixed staphylococci and streptococci occur up to puberty. Lactobacilli after puberty. These bacteria produce acid pH. Lactobacilli disappear again after menopause, resulting in mixed flora.
The kidney, ureters, bladder and upper part of the urethra are sterile in a healthy person. In men and women, Gram-positive bacteria can be found in the lower part of the urethra.
In our previous article titled Gram-positive bacteria, we provide information about nursing courses.
Mother's milk is the most important supporter of the system formed by microorganisms that protect us from harmful microbes.
Microbiota is a system of microorganisms consisting of billions of fungi, bacteria and single cells that live with us in the body-bananas. These tiny creatures, whose total weight can reach a few pounds, are like an empire of microbes colonized in various parts of our bodies, outnumbered. The genetic material that this microbiota has is also called the microbiome. These names were first mentioned in the work of molecular biologist Joshua Lederberg and his microbiologist wife Esther Lederberg on bacterial genetics, and in 1958 Joshua Lederberg won the Nobel Prize in medicine when he was 33 years old.
The way of birth is important
Although the word germ evokes the meaning of harmful and disease-making, the microbes we are talking about here are actually kind of friendly to us and the opposite of what we think, protecting us from harmful microbes and diseases. They colonize various parts of the body, including the skin, urinary tract, digestive, respiratory and genital system. They create the natural flora of the region where they are settled and live without harm. As an example, when we suspect the disease and have the culture of the throat made, we get the result of “the normal flora of the throat has grown”. Our doctor says, ‘there's nothing to worry about,’ he doesn't need antibiotics or any medication. Because the microbes that reproduce in culture are these harmless microbes that we live with. The species of flora in this colony of microbes vary according to the region. At the same time, the genetic characteristics of the microbiome, the amount and types of microbiota vary from person to person. Individual-specific permanent flora occurs at the first three ages. During pregnancy, bacteria begin to pass from mother to baby. If you have a normal birth, you will also be able to pass through the birth canal during the birth. The regular increase in microbiota in breastfed babies continues.
The benefits of normal birth and breast milk are not only counted, but one benefit is that it enriches the microbiota
For this reason, the form of birth is very important in the formation of the microbiota. Instead of caesarean section, if there is no medical impediment, a normal birth should be done. In addition, feeding with breast milk is also very important for the proper development of microbiota. At the same time, the way the mother feeds during pregnancy and during breastfeeding, the flora of the immediate environment and the flora of the mother's gut, and the way the baby feeds during the first 3 years will also play a role in the development of the microbiota. Because of these characteristics, which can vary from person to person, the bacterial flora or microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract also show personal differences.
Breast milk enriches
We said that the microbiota is a collection of microbes that live with us and that even though it's called a microbe, it doesn't do any harm in any way. If so, why do we care so much about microbiota? If it doesn't hurt, what difference can it make if it's more or less. Why are we paying attention to not missing from it? We call it a normal birth, not necessarily mother's milk. Of course, the benefits of normal birth and breast milk do not stop counting, but one benefit is that it enriches the microbiota. Not only does this empire of microbes, which have settled and spread throughout our bodies in colonies, harm us, but in many ways it can help us. It creates a barrier in the area where they are settled, preventing other disease-making microbes from settling there. So it protects us from enemy germs. It also shows the most important effect in our immune system.
In a 2007 study by Palmer and colleagues, it was shown that the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract of mama-fed babies is weak compared to breast-fed babies, and that childhood asthma and allergic disorders are very high in these babies. In their 2014 paper, Everard and colleagues showed that regular functioning of the digestive system affects many functions such as balance of the immune system, maintaining the energy cycle, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, brain functions, happiness, depression tendency. The regular functioning of the digestive system depends on the good condition of the gut microbiota.
Probiotics and prebiotics
Our bodies are governed only by the brain and the heart. But this idea is not true. Another organ that is as powerful as the brain and drives our lives is our intestines and the bacteria in it. There are more than 500 types of bacteria in the human digestive system. Many of these microorganisms are in good kararketrde and this colonization is gained during the nascent period and remains constant throughout life. For this reason, the way of birth and the way of feeding are important. In healthy people, these bacteria are in a balance of beneficial and harmful ones.
Probiotic for life
The human gut contains as many as 100 trillion living bacteria, called gut flora. In healthy conditions, bacteria that are beneficial and harmful in the gut flora are in balance, and living micriorganisms that are present in certain numbers in the digestive system and that have beneficial effects in the host are called probiotics. The term probiotic is a word of Greek origin, meaning ‘for life’.
Microorganisms known as probiotics are usually from the Lactobacillus, Streptococcus and Bifidobacterium group. Probiotics have effects in the form of reducing the number of pathogenic and harmful bacteria, improving the immune system, and improving the functions of the intestinal wall. Prebiotics found naturally in many of breast milk, fibrous vegetables and fruits include galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), and inulin.
Caesarean section leads to reduction of probiotics
As we pass through the birth canal the first moment we come into the world, we encounter trillions of beneficial bacteria, some of which we take into our bodies. The bacteria that are usually taken into the body during birth are probiotic bacteria that we will never encounter again in life.
In babies born by caesarean section, this condition can not come across probiotic flora, so the initial intestinal flora is either cholenization of microorganisms that are transmitted from the environment on the mother's womb or contact the baby. Scientists suspect that this difference in colonization between babies born by normal and caesarean section may be behind a high incidence of allergies and asthma in the later process, but more research is needed.