Saturday, October 31, 2020

What is Preterm Birth?

Preterm birth is one of the biggest concerns of expectant mothers. Approximately 12% of pregnancies result in premature birth. It is also possible to prevent premature birth, also known as premature birth, by eliminating various risk factors. However, sometimes protective measures are not enough, and premature birth can be an inevitable end. The anxiety of expectant mothers on the subject stems from the fear of losing their babies. However, giving birth earlier than it should be does not necessarily mean that the baby will result in death.

What is Preterm Birth

What are Preterm Birth Symptoms?

The most important premature birth symptom is regular and frequent contractions and these contractions intensify over time. However, most women experience false contractions called Braxton-Hicks during pregnancy. This should not be confused with the contractions experienced before premature birth. Pseudo-contractions are not consistent and there is also no increase in frequency. However, it does not cause pain like prenatal contractions. Position change in prenatal contractions does not stop the contraction, but acting in false contractions may stop the contraction.

Frequent urination and an increase in vaginal discharge are also symptoms of preterm labor. This condition may be accompanied by a bleeding in the form of vaginal bleeding or spotting. The expectant mother feels serious pressure on her pelvis. Spasm every 10 minutes and headache are among these symptoms. Headache usually occurs at the back of the head and is permanent in some expectant mothers and temporary in others.

In the lower part of the abdomen, a cramp like the menstrual period is also on the list of early birth symptoms. Symptoms include increased vaginal discharge, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Considering all these symptoms, expectant mothers should consult with their doctor immediately if they suspect about premature birth. Especially, the frequency of contractions for 10 minutes or less, increasing in intensity is the most important symptom and you should contact your doctor without wasting time.

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Who is at the Risk of Preterm Birth?

First of all, it is not possible to predict in which pregnancies premature birth will occur. However, this does not mean that there are no risk factors. We can list these risk factors as follows:

  • ·         Having had a premature birth before
  • ·         Having twins and triplets before
  • ·         Working in heavy physical work that exhausts the body
  • ·         A problem with the uterus, cervix or placenta
  • ·         Smoking and drug use
  • ·         Presence of fetal birth defects
  • ·         Experiencing a situation that causes severe stress and distress
  • ·         Some infections
  • ·         Excessive amniotic fluid
  • ·         Vaginal bleeding during pregnancy
  • ·         Less than 6 months between pregnancies
  • ·         Having some chronic illnesses
  • ·         Presence of periodontal disease

Can Preterm Birth Be Prevented?

Can Preterm Birth Be Prevented

Although it is possible to eliminate preventable risk factors, premature birth may not always be prevented. It is recommended that you have check-ups before pregnancy in order to eliminate possible risk factors and have a healthier pregnancy period. Many women realize that they have a health problem related to the uterus during pregnancy controls, but this problem cannot always be eliminated by surgical intervention due to pregnancy. However, not interrupting routine controls before pregnancy ensures that these problems are intervened in the early period.

However, a regular and healthy diet is of great importance. Folic acid and calcium supplements are much more important than expected in order to consume the ideal amount of water every day, to have a healthy pregnancy and to reduce the risk of preterm birth. For this reason, risk factors must be well known to prevent preterm birth.

It is the wisest choice to eliminate preventable risk factors. When these risk symptoms appear, your doctor may ask you to use some medications. Using prescribed medications as directed and not disrupting them can also prevent premature births.

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How Many Weeks Preterm Birth?

A normal pregnancy lasts 40 weeks. Delivery before the 37th week of pregnancy is considered premature birth. Of course, it is undesirable because premature births pose serious risks to babies' health. Premature babies are immediately taken to the neonatal care unit and need special attention.

How to Prevent Preterm Birth?

How to Prevent Preterm Birth

We have stated before that it is not always possible to prevent preterm birth. Some measures that expectant mothers can take may reduce the risk, but still premature birth may occur. For example, one of the most important factors causing preterm birth is vaginal infections. In fact, almost 50% of preterm births are caused by vaginal and uterine infections. You can eliminate this risk by taking precautions such as taking into account your doctor's recommendations and warnings and paying attention to hygiene conditions.

In addition, smoking and drug use is one of the causes of premature birth and it should be underlined that it is a preventable risk factor. Planning a pregnancy that will take longer than 6 months between two pregnancies is also important in order to prevent premature birth. Not putting too much strain on the body during pregnancy and checking dental health before pregnancy can also be considered in this category. Some gum diseases can also cause this problem.

What are Preterm Birth Losses?

Unfortunately, premature birth means life-threatening risk for babies. Of course, not every premature baby dies, but infant deaths due to premature birth are common. In addition, if the birth occurs earlier than it should be, it may cause some physical and mental problems in babies. In the newborn intensive care unit, all necessary treatments are applied to strengthen the development of the vital organs of babies. However, various diseases may occur due to internal organ development disorders.

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How is it treated?

Let us state that the treatment is specially planned and applied according to the health status of the mothers, the health condition of the baby and the reasons of preterm birth. The same treatment procedure is not applied to every expectant mother. First of all, when preterm labor is suspected, some medications may be prescribed by your doctor.

If this risk cannot be eliminated with the use of medication, gynecologists and obstetricians prepare themselves for a high risk birth and all kinds of precautions are taken. However, sometimes, unfortunately, the birth can start in the 34th week of pregnancy, or some doubts may arise that it will begin. In this case, you may need to be treated in a clinical setting and your doctor may recommend hospitalization.

A much different treatment is applied if the pregnancy water comes. Especially if the cause of premature birth and pregnancy water is due to infection, then your doctor may prescribe antibiotics. Corticosteroid use may be required between the 24th and 34th week of pregnancy to accelerate the lung development of the unborn baby.

However, it may be necessary to use some drugs in order to control the contractions and delay the birth. These are all common treatment protocols. Different treatments may be required depending on the condition of the mother and the baby. In such a case, it is important for the expectant mother to remain calm and strictly comply with her doctor's recommendations and warnings, in order to be able to apply the treatment smoothly.

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Tuesday, October 6, 2020

What is Fibroid? What are the Symptoms? What is the treatment?

Myoma is abnormal smooth muscle proliferation in the uterus and is one of the most common female diseases. We can define fibroids as benign tumors. Fibroids that can show different locations in the uterus such as intramural, subserus, intracavitary and pedunculated can be seen at any age. However, it is also known to be more common between the ages of 30 and 40. These tumors, which can be affected by the hormonal state of the body, tend to shrink after the menopause period.

Fibroids, which tend to grow after menopause, must be followed up regularly because of the possibility of turning into malignant. In general, the probability of these tumors becoming cancerous is 1 in 1000. However, it is very important to have regular follow-ups due to the risk of cancer, even if it is low.

Meanwhile, there is a risk of recurrence of fibroids. The probability of recurrence in the first 5 years after the removal of fibroids with surgery is around 20% to 25%. All visible tumors can be cleared during treatment. However, those in microscopic dimensions that are not yet visible to the eye can grow over time as they cannot be cleaned.

Why Does Myoma Occur?

The probability of being seen in women in the reproductive period is around 20%. Of course, when diagnosed, women also wonder why these tumors occur. However, it should be noted that the cause of fibroids is not yet known. Genetic factors are effective in this formation and therefore the family history of the patients is also important in diagnosing fibroids. However, these tumors also have a hormone-dependent feature. Their tendency to shrink after menopause suggests that they are highly affected by the estrogen hormone.

According to the researches, fibroids are more common in obese women and women who have never given birth before. Its dimensions can be different for each patient. We can also say that fibroids can pose some risks depending on their size and where they are located in the uterus. For example, fibroids that are large and put pressure on the cavity cavity in the uterus can cause infertility. However, we can say that they can cause problems such as miscarriage or recurrent pregnancy loss, as well as premature birth.

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What are the Symptoms of Myoma?

When patients have fibroids, the ability of the uterus to contract can also be negatively affected. Accordingly, menstrual irregularity may occur. Most of the women learn that they have uterine fibroids when they apply to the gynecologist and obstetrician with the complaint of long and severe menstrual bleeding. Due to severe bleeding, anemia may also occur. Anemia is usually seen in women who think that severe and prolonged menstrual bleeding is normal and who do not consult a doctor for a long time.

Myoma, which reaches large sizes, manifests itself with the following symptoms:

  • Swelling and pain in the abdominal area
  • Constipation
  • Complaints about degassing
  • Some kidney problems
  • Frequent urination

Healthy fibroids in the cavity can manifest themselves with different symptoms. For example, we can say that stalked fibroids can go outside the uterine cavity. Symptoms such as bleeding and infection after sexual intercourse can also be seen. Depending on the infection, malodorous vaginal discharge may also occur.

Dr. Ismet Yildirim says ...

Myoma is a benign tumor arising from the uterine muscle layer seen in 2 out of every 5 women after the age of 35. The cause is usually genetic, if it is present in the mother, it is likely to be in her daughter and siblings. It causes complaints depending on the location in the uterus.

While those who settle in the inner layer of the uterus bleed excessively, those placed in the muscle layer cause pain. In case of excessive growth, it can damage the surrounding organs and cause trouble for conception. There is no drug treatment. If it causes conditions such as anemia, rapid growth and pain, it is appropriate to be removed by surgery. There are different types of surgery. Fibroids that do not complain are followed up. Fibroids may regress on their own in women who enter menopause. Regular periodic check-ups in women ensure early diagnosis.

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Is There a Treatment for Myoma?

Before proceeding to the treatment phase, myoma must be diagnosed in the uterus and myoma must be examined. Since it is possible to diagnose with pelvic examination and ultrasound imaging, it is not absolutely necessary to perform very advanced examinations. However, depending on the location of the myoma, the age and complaints of the patient, three-dimensional USG, MRI and tomography may be required.

After the diagnosis of myoma is made, treatment options are evaluated considering the age of the patient, symptoms, the size of the myoma and the location where it is located. If there is a very sudden growth or transformation into a malignant tumor, it may be necessary to perform surgical intervention and evacuate the fibroid formation from the body immediately.

However, it may be possible for fibroids to cause infertility, as we mentioned before. Fibroids located in a place that prevents fertilization may also need to be surgically removed to eliminate the infertility problem. In short, it is possible to treat fibroids with medical and surgical treatment methods. The most ideal treatment option will be applied by the gynecologist and obstetrician by evaluating the patient's condition.

Myoma Surgery In The Womb

First of all, in case of uterine fibroids, the patient does not necessarily need surgery. When the decision of surgery is made, the surgical intervention is performed with the most appropriate technique for the patient. Surgery can be performed using open, closed, BAE or hysteroscopy methods. 

Whether the patient wants to have children or not is also important in determining the surgical intervention technique. Because, as an alternative to evacuating fibroids from the body, it may be preferable to completely remove the uterus. However, in this case, the patient also loses fertility and cannot get pregnant again.

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This method of myoma surgery is applied by entering and removing fibroids that cause severe pain or severe bleeding in the patient. In this method, a special imaging system is used and fibroids located under the uterus or inside the uterus can be imaged.

Closed Surgery

Surgery can be performed by laparoscopic or robotic surgery method. If the uterine fibroids are larger than 4-5 cm, the myoma is removed from the uterine bed. Then, bleeding in this area can be intervened.

Open Surgery

Other surgical techniques can be inconvenient in cases such as the large size of myomas and their progress to the upper part of the belly. Therefore, surgical intervention should be done with an open technique. The operation is completed with the application of stitches after the incision is applied to the patient and the removal of myomas. The recovery time of the patient is longer in operations performed with open technique. Therefore, it is preferred to perform the surgery with other techniques unless it is necessary.

Uterine Artery Embolization (UAE)

In very rare cases, interventional radiological techniques can be used. The veins that feed the myoma are closed with the help of catheter entering through the inguinal vein. In this way, the growth of myoma can be prevented and even shrinkage of myoma can be achieved. When this method is applied, it is observed that the symptoms are reduced by 90%.

Does Myoma Cause Much Pain?

In case of uterine fibroids in women, there is often no severe pain. However, some patients may experience pain that can disturb daily life, especially during menstrual periods. At the same time, although it is rare, some patients may also experience back pain.

It may also be possible to experience pain during or after sexual intercourse. Therefore, fibroids is a condition that can cause pain. Factors such as which part of the uterus is located, its size, and the tissues that it puts pressure on in the uterus can also determine whether it causes pain or how much pain it causes.

Does Myoma Bleed?

Since the most typical symptom of fibroids is bleeding, women who have fibroids in the uterus may experience severe bleeding during their menstrual periods. At the same time, these tumors can cause the menstrual period to take longer. This is because women experience problems such as anemia and fatigue due to severe and prolonged menstrual bleeding.

Myoma that causes excessive bleeding complaints should be removed by surgical intervention. Because different health problems may arise due to severe bleeding. You can write your questions on the subject in the comment section.

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Friday, October 2, 2020

What Is A Wound In The Cervix? (Servical Erosion) How Is It Treated?

cervicitis often develops due to infection and can be defined as inflammation of the cervical tissue. It can also occur after irritation or trauma and is commonly manifested by vaginal discharge. Treatment can be done with simple surgical interventions, and after a short recovery period, it is possible for the patient to return to his daily life. We can state that all women with active sex lives are suitable candidates for this ailment.

Cervical Erosion

Is There Really A Wound In The Cervical Mouth?

Wound in the cervix, which is common in the society, is among the problems frequently encountered by gynecologists and obstetricians. What is called "wound" among the people is actually the formation of a red and rough appearance in this area. The squamous epithelial cells of the vagina change due to various reasons such as irritation, trauma or infection, and this change causes a rough surface appearance in the cervix. Sometimes, the cervix can be bloody and velvety.

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Why Does Cervical Wound (Cervicitis) Occur?

It is still not known exactly which factors cause scar formation in the cervix. However, it should be noted that infection is an extremely active factor. This problem often arises as a result of infections that develop in the cervical region due to various factors. Generally, 3 microorganisms can cause cervicitis. These;

  • Chlamydia
  • Gonorrhea
  • Trichomonas

However, we can state that frequent sexual intercourse is among the causes of cervicitis. The hormonal changes in the body can also lead to such a result. In recent years, it has been understood that some chemical factors also cause scar formation in the cervix. This discomfort can occur in women, especially due to the chemical substances on the condom. As a result of the allergic reactions of the body to some substances, sores can occur in the cervix area.


What Symptoms Does Cervical Sore Cause?

What Symptoms Does Cervical Sore Cause

First of all, it should be noted that the symptoms of the wound in the cervix do not have specific features. Since symptoms that can occur in many different conditions are observed, it can only cause discharge in the patient. Because it does not cause a different complaint, it is sometimes diagnosed during routine control examinations.

Because discharge is not a symptom that patients take too seriously. Since the discharge that occurs after the menstrual period is often not considered as a disease precursor, patients do not need to consult a doctor. This situation turns into an important obstacle to early diagnosis in many diseases. However, vaginal discharge is the most important symptom of cervicitis.

Although there are no symptoms in mild cases, we can list the symptoms of cervicitis in general as follows:

  • Bleeding during or after sexual intercourse if the wound is large
  • Bleeding in the form of spotting outside the menstrual period
  • A burning sensation during urination
  • Itching in the vaginal area

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Who Is The Cervical Wound More Common?

Wound in the cervix, which can be seen at any age, can also occur due to genetic factors. A wound is expected in women with a wound on their mother. Especially in young girls who have never had intercourse, the presence of wounds suggests genetic factors. It can be mentioned that it is more common in women who have frequent vaginal infections or have more than one delivery. This problem may occur more commonly in women with cervical irritation for various reasons and women who have frequent sexual intercourse.

The use of birth control pills, on the other hand, can cause the cells that make secretion in the cervical canal to proliferate and increase the risk of wound formation in the cervix, even indirectly. We can state that this disorder is more common in women who use contraceptive pills or have spirals.


How To Treat Wounds In The Cervical Mouth? How Long Does It Take To Heal?

Burning the problematic area with electrocautery or freezing with cryotherapy are minor surgical methods used in the treatment of wounds in the cervix. Let us state that the healing time can vary depending on which treatment is applied and the size of the wound in the cervix. 

The most common treatment protocol is obtaining heat with a pen-like device and burning this area with heat. This treatment is the oldest treatment method and there may be very mild pain during the procedure. However, the patient can return to his life immediately after the procedure.

After the wound treatment in the cervix, which is applied by burning the wound with a cautery device, the complaint of discharge can continue for up to 15 days and this is medically quite normal. Slight burning may continue for a while. It takes 10 to 15 days for the tissues to fully heal, and sexual intercourse should not be made during this period. Because sexual intercourse can cause the wound to recur.

With cryotherapy, recovery occurs faster in the freezing process. The procedure takes about 5 minutes and the patient can return to his daily life immediately. After the cervical wound treatment applied with this method, only a mild groin pain can be experienced. It should be underlined that the probability of recurrence after this job is also lower.


Does The Cervical Wound Go On Itself?

Does The Cervical Wound Go On Itself

If it is a simple irritant substance that causes wound formation in the cervix, the problem may disappear if this substance is not used. In a sense, we can say that this ailment does not always require treatment. However, the smear test must be done beforehand and the test result must be evaluated by the gynecologist and obstetrician.

If the patient has an infection and the development of cervicitis is observed due to the infection, it will be beneficial to apply the treatment procedure. In addition, in case of wound in the cervix, the factor that causes the wound may need to be eliminated and it may be waited for a while. If there are no signs of improvement during this period, the appropriate treatment option may be preferred.

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What Happens If Uterine Wound Is Not Treated?

In case of a wound in the cervix, you should definitely consult with the gynecologist and obstetrician and be examined. If the wound condition is of a size that requires treatment and is not treated, it can become chronic in a short time. At the same time, the wound can deepen and spread over a wider area. In this case, the patient's complaints will also increase and the quality of daily life will be negatively affected by these complaints.

You should also know that the treatment may take longer and may be more difficult in the future. We can say that untreated cervical wounds cause infertility, premature birth, miscarriage and even cervical cancer. If it is not treated, changes occur in the flora of the vagina due to frequent discharge and vaginal inflammation occurs.


Does Cervical Wound Cause Cancer?

First of all, we need to mention that cervical wound and cervical cancer are very different conditions. Wound in the cervix does not necessarily mean that the patient will have cervical cancer. But not treating the wound can significantly increase the risk of cancer. It is also important whether cervicitis is ulcerated or not. In the case of an ulcerating wound, it is necessary to scan for the presence of the HPV virus immediately.

Because this virus progresses and spreads very quickly in the area with wound formation. It should not be forgotten that HPV virus alone is the cause of cervical cancer. As a result, although cervicitis is not a single cause of cancer, it is a condition that is indirectly related to cervical cancer.

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