Tuesday, October 6, 2020

What is Fibroid? What are the Symptoms? What is the treatment?

Myoma is abnormal smooth muscle proliferation in the uterus and is one of the most common female diseases. We can define fibroids as benign tumors. Fibroids that can show different locations in the uterus such as intramural, subserus, intracavitary and pedunculated can be seen at any age. However, it is also known to be more common between the ages of 30 and 40. These tumors, which can be affected by the hormonal state of the body, tend to shrink after the menopause period.

Fibroids, which tend to grow after menopause, must be followed up regularly because of the possibility of turning into malignant. In general, the probability of these tumors becoming cancerous is 1 in 1000. However, it is very important to have regular follow-ups due to the risk of cancer, even if it is low.

Meanwhile, there is a risk of recurrence of fibroids. The probability of recurrence in the first 5 years after the removal of fibroids with surgery is around 20% to 25%. All visible tumors can be cleared during treatment. However, those in microscopic dimensions that are not yet visible to the eye can grow over time as they cannot be cleaned.

Why Does Myoma Occur?

The probability of being seen in women in the reproductive period is around 20%. Of course, when diagnosed, women also wonder why these tumors occur. However, it should be noted that the cause of fibroids is not yet known. Genetic factors are effective in this formation and therefore the family history of the patients is also important in diagnosing fibroids. However, these tumors also have a hormone-dependent feature. Their tendency to shrink after menopause suggests that they are highly affected by the estrogen hormone.

According to the researches, fibroids are more common in obese women and women who have never given birth before. Its dimensions can be different for each patient. We can also say that fibroids can pose some risks depending on their size and where they are located in the uterus. For example, fibroids that are large and put pressure on the cavity cavity in the uterus can cause infertility. However, we can say that they can cause problems such as miscarriage or recurrent pregnancy loss, as well as premature birth.

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What are the Symptoms of Myoma?

When patients have fibroids, the ability of the uterus to contract can also be negatively affected. Accordingly, menstrual irregularity may occur. Most of the women learn that they have uterine fibroids when they apply to the gynecologist and obstetrician with the complaint of long and severe menstrual bleeding. Due to severe bleeding, anemia may also occur. Anemia is usually seen in women who think that severe and prolonged menstrual bleeding is normal and who do not consult a doctor for a long time.

Myoma, which reaches large sizes, manifests itself with the following symptoms:

  • Swelling and pain in the abdominal area
  • Constipation
  • Complaints about degassing
  • Some kidney problems
  • Frequent urination

Healthy fibroids in the cavity can manifest themselves with different symptoms. For example, we can say that stalked fibroids can go outside the uterine cavity. Symptoms such as bleeding and infection after sexual intercourse can also be seen. Depending on the infection, malodorous vaginal discharge may also occur.

Dr. Ismet Yildirim says ...

Myoma is a benign tumor arising from the uterine muscle layer seen in 2 out of every 5 women after the age of 35. The cause is usually genetic, if it is present in the mother, it is likely to be in her daughter and siblings. It causes complaints depending on the location in the uterus.

While those who settle in the inner layer of the uterus bleed excessively, those placed in the muscle layer cause pain. In case of excessive growth, it can damage the surrounding organs and cause trouble for conception. There is no drug treatment. If it causes conditions such as anemia, rapid growth and pain, it is appropriate to be removed by surgery. There are different types of surgery. Fibroids that do not complain are followed up. Fibroids may regress on their own in women who enter menopause. Regular periodic check-ups in women ensure early diagnosis.

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Is There a Treatment for Myoma?

Before proceeding to the treatment phase, myoma must be diagnosed in the uterus and myoma must be examined. Since it is possible to diagnose with pelvic examination and ultrasound imaging, it is not absolutely necessary to perform very advanced examinations. However, depending on the location of the myoma, the age and complaints of the patient, three-dimensional USG, MRI and tomography may be required.

After the diagnosis of myoma is made, treatment options are evaluated considering the age of the patient, symptoms, the size of the myoma and the location where it is located. If there is a very sudden growth or transformation into a malignant tumor, it may be necessary to perform surgical intervention and evacuate the fibroid formation from the body immediately.

However, it may be possible for fibroids to cause infertility, as we mentioned before. Fibroids located in a place that prevents fertilization may also need to be surgically removed to eliminate the infertility problem. In short, it is possible to treat fibroids with medical and surgical treatment methods. The most ideal treatment option will be applied by the gynecologist and obstetrician by evaluating the patient's condition.

Myoma Surgery In The Womb

First of all, in case of uterine fibroids, the patient does not necessarily need surgery. When the decision of surgery is made, the surgical intervention is performed with the most appropriate technique for the patient. Surgery can be performed using open, closed, BAE or hysteroscopy methods. 

Whether the patient wants to have children or not is also important in determining the surgical intervention technique. Because, as an alternative to evacuating fibroids from the body, it may be preferable to completely remove the uterus. However, in this case, the patient also loses fertility and cannot get pregnant again.

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Hysteroscopy

This method of myoma surgery is applied by entering and removing fibroids that cause severe pain or severe bleeding in the patient. In this method, a special imaging system is used and fibroids located under the uterus or inside the uterus can be imaged.

Closed Surgery

Surgery can be performed by laparoscopic or robotic surgery method. If the uterine fibroids are larger than 4-5 cm, the myoma is removed from the uterine bed. Then, bleeding in this area can be intervened.

Open Surgery

Other surgical techniques can be inconvenient in cases such as the large size of myomas and their progress to the upper part of the belly. Therefore, surgical intervention should be done with an open technique. The operation is completed with the application of stitches after the incision is applied to the patient and the removal of myomas. The recovery time of the patient is longer in operations performed with open technique. Therefore, it is preferred to perform the surgery with other techniques unless it is necessary.

Uterine Artery Embolization (UAE)

In very rare cases, interventional radiological techniques can be used. The veins that feed the myoma are closed with the help of catheter entering through the inguinal vein. In this way, the growth of myoma can be prevented and even shrinkage of myoma can be achieved. When this method is applied, it is observed that the symptoms are reduced by 90%.

Does Myoma Cause Much Pain?

In case of uterine fibroids in women, there is often no severe pain. However, some patients may experience pain that can disturb daily life, especially during menstrual periods. At the same time, although it is rare, some patients may also experience back pain.

It may also be possible to experience pain during or after sexual intercourse. Therefore, fibroids is a condition that can cause pain. Factors such as which part of the uterus is located, its size, and the tissues that it puts pressure on in the uterus can also determine whether it causes pain or how much pain it causes.

Does Myoma Bleed?

Since the most typical symptom of fibroids is bleeding, women who have fibroids in the uterus may experience severe bleeding during their menstrual periods. At the same time, these tumors can cause the menstrual period to take longer. This is because women experience problems such as anemia and fatigue due to severe and prolonged menstrual bleeding.

Myoma that causes excessive bleeding complaints should be removed by surgical intervention. Because different health problems may arise due to severe bleeding. You can write your questions on the subject in the comment section.


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