Estrogen hormone is a sex hormone secreted from the ovaries. Excessive or deficiency of estrogen hormone levels cause different problems. The complaints of women who experience both estrogen deficiency and estrogen excess can be eliminated by hormone therapy methods, also called hormone replacement therapy. So what is this estrogen
What is the estrogen hormone, what does it do?
Estrogen hormone, which is one of the two sex-determining hormones in humans, is the most prominent hormone that is secreted from the ovaries in women, thrusts the menstrual cycle, breast growth, hip shaping, preparing the inner lining of the uterus to an environment where the baby can hold and grow.
What causes estrogen excess?
The egg cell begins to develop on the first day of menstruation and ovulation occurs approximately 12-16 days later. It also responds to estrogen by secreting progesterone hormone by the tissue called corpus luteum, which is released after ovulation. If ovulation does not occur, the hormone level will increase rapidly and estrogen will increase in the body.
Women's lifestyles can also cause estrogen excess. The excess of hormones appears to be more in women with lifestyles such as low fiber diet, smoking and alcohol use, excessive caffeine consumption. At the same time, drugs such as hormone replacement therapies, cortisone use, phenothiazines (neuroleptic psychiatric drugs) also cause hormone accumulation. On the other hand, chemicals that act as hormones by imitating estrogen called xenoestrogen also cause a serious increase in estrogen.
These types of chemicals, acting as estrogens, increase insulin resistance and cause liver dysfunction by increasing the fat ratio in the body. At the same time, granulosa cell ovarian tumors are tumors that cause hormone increase by secreting estrogen.
What causes estrogen deficiency?
It is necessary for the production of certain hormones by the hypothalamus and pituitary glands, for the development of the egg cell and for the hormone synthesis. Some dysfunctions in the hypothalamus and pituitary glands in the brain may prevent the production of these hormones. In this case, because estrogen production is not triggered in the ovaries, hormone deficiency occurs.
With menopause, estrogen deficiency can also be observed as ovarian reserve is depleted and there are no active egg cells left. It is possible to experience the same situation whether it is during the natural process of menopause or surgery.
What are the symptoms of excess estrogen?
The first symptom of estrogen excess is menstrual irregularity. Since there is no ovulation, the increased estrogen level causes the inner layer of the uterus to grow continuously, but the egg does not crack without progesterone, so menstruation does not start.
Menstrual delay lasts quite a long time and eventually menstruation appear in the form of pieced, clotted bleeding. Long years of estrogen excess causes thickening of the uterine lining. Thickening of the uterine lining is one of the main causes of endometrium cancer in women close to menopause or after menopause.
What are the symptoms of estrogen deficiency?
The primary symptoms of estrogen deficiency are menstruation. Although the brain fails to deliver the necessary signals or gives warnings, the first symptom of menstrual delay in return is menstruation. Lack of egg cells means that estrogen cannot be synthesized, and this causes inability to develop menstruation as a result of the uterine lining.
Is there a link with hair loss?
Among the causes of hair loss, hair loss due to androgen hormone is seen. The male hormone androgen is a hormone responsible for the causes of hair loss in women. Polycystic ovary syndrome causes an increase in androgen hormone together with estrogen. In polycystic ovary syndrome, male pattern hair loss can be seen frequently due to increased androgen levels.
What are the functions of estrogen in the body?
Estrogen, known to be the most important hormone in determining the female gender, is responsible for numerous female characteristics such as female hair growth, breast growth, ensuring the menstrual cycle and conception.
How is low estrogen treated?
It is investigated whether there is a problem with the brain as a result of hormone tests applied for the symptoms of low estrogen. It is treated externally with hormone supplements for estrogen deficiency, which is mostly caused by menopause.
With replacement therapy, which is the method used from low estrogen levels, the decreasing hormone in the body is balanced by external administration. Hormone therapy can be given orally, vaginally or topically. Hormone therapy, which is a treatment method that is mostly used for the relief of menopausal or post-menopausal complaints, provides relief of menopausal symptoms.
It is known that hormone therapy, which was used much more in previous years, caused cancer development, vascular occlusion and clot formation. Therefore, your doctor will determine a treatment method according to the benefit / harm ratio before hormone therapy. For example, if a woman whose uterus is removed does not have breast problems or other additional risks, only estrogen-containing drugs are given. Progesterone + estrogen-containing treatments are applied to a postmenopausal patient whose uterus has not been removed. These hormone treatments are kept at a minimum dose and a short course of treatment should be applied as possible.
Due to such side effects of hormone drugs, the search for different treatment methods without risks and side effects is still ongoing. Herbals called phytoestrogens show estrogen-like effects in the human body and are one of the main methods used to balance the hormone level.
There are 2 different types of phytoestrogens, isoflavones and lignans. Dry legumes such as soybeans and isoflavones in soy products are known to reduce menopausal symptoms. Although lignan containing flax seeds, whole grains, some legumes, vegetables and fruits are known to be good for menopausal symptoms, there are not enough studies on them.
What precautions should be taken for estrogen excess?
With the regulation of the ovulation cycle, young women can be restored to their menstrual cycle. However, hormone therapy or hormone-containing spiral application are options to regulate the hormone level of middle-aged women. Hormone therapy is also very important for the prevention of intrauterine cancer, as it will prevent intrauterine thickening.
What are the causes of abdominal bloating and breast tenderness?
Estrogen is a hormone that causes water retention in the body, ie edema. This is the reason for swelling in the hands and feet, especially in cases such as lack of menstruation, menstrual delay. It is known that high estrogen levels, which cause conditions such as abdominal bloating, gas problems, breast tenderness, mood disorders, cellulite in the legs and hips, and decreased libido, are also closely related to breast cancer and uterine cancer.
Complications such as frequent hot flashes, migraine, chronic headache, vaginal dryness, urinary incontinence, muscle weakness, back and joint pain, distraction, anxiety, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases also result from low estrogen levels.