Showing posts with label HPV. Show all posts
Showing posts with label HPV. Show all posts

Tuesday, September 15, 2020

What is HPV Virus? How Is It Treated?

HPV virus infection is a dangerous disease that encountered in women and men has been proven to cause cancer. HPV, which is the abbreviation of human papilloma virus, causes the formation of cervical warts. For this reason, it is among the most common causes of cervical cancer and uterine cancer.

HPV virus, which mostly forms on the skin surface and the mucosa covering the inner parts of the genital areas such as the uterus, creates an infection by destroying the skin covering layers called "multilayer squamous epithelium". HPV virus types have a large family of virus types. HPV, which is among the sexually transmitted diseases, has the risk of transmission in contact with the area where the warts are. For example, a hand wart can be transmitted to the opposite side by shaking hands.

What is HPV Virus How Is It Treated

What are the symptoms of genital warts?

Warts, which are flat or puffy on the skin, sometimes in the form of blisters filled with water and sometimes in pink and brown tones, are generally measured in millimeters, although in some people the sizes of warts can reach up to a few centimeters. Warts, which are seen in immunosuppressive people and diabetic patients due to various reasons, are mostly seen in larger and overlapping forms than their derivatives.

While the number and size of warts may regress in some people, sometimes an increase can be seen. Most of the time, genital warts do not cause symptoms, but complaints of bleeding and itching can be seen in some patients. In women, depending on the warts that occur in the internal genital area, it may manifest as bleeding during or after sexual intercourse and during pregnancy.

Most warts in the external genital area are visible and itchy. Genital warts in men can be seen in the penis, groin, testicle and rectal area. Although genital warts in men are at a low rate, they sometimes occur around the urinary tract and anus, and in this case, it gives symptoms with difficulty in urinating in men.

Warts may appear many years after infection and HPV can progress without any symptoms or disappear without appearing, while HPV lurks quietly. This is because the immune system destroys the virus. Not every virus has to be warts.

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What are the types of the virus?

What are the types of the virus

It is known that 30 to 40 types of the virus, known as Human Papilloma Virus Infection, with over 170 different types, are anogenital. This means that 30-40 types of virus cause infection by destroying the surface of the external genital organs and around the anus and anus.

Does it cause cancer?

Cancer-causing high risk groups for Human papilloma virus with over 170 different subtypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 68, 73, 82 and 68 While the lower types are known as 6, 11, 40, 42, 43, 44, 54, 61, 70, 72 and 81.

While the HPV virus is held responsible for all of the causes of cervical cancers, HPV infection is held responsible for head and neck cancers, penile cancer, vulva cancer, vaginal cancer and anal cancer. HPV virus, which is more common in these areas of sexual contact, plays little or a role in the development of cancer.

It is known that HPV Type 16 is responsible for 50% of cervical cancers and 15-20% of HPV Type 18. Human Papilloma Virus Infection, which is the most common cause of diseases such as genital warts and cervical warts, also causes serious health problems, especially cancer. When the causes of genital warts are investigated, type 6 and 11 infections, which are low-risk virus types, play a role in 90% of the patients.

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How is HPV transmitted?

Genital warts have a high potential for infection. Genital warts are mostly transmitted by oral, rectal and vaginal sexual contact. The transmission rate between partners is about 60%. Due to the high contamination rate, the lifelong genital warts in sexually active individuals has approached 50%.

  • Risks in HPV transmission;
  • Starting sexual intercourse at an early age
  • Having multiple sexual partners
  • Having unprotected sex
  • A history of sexually transmitted infections
  • Low immune system

How is HPV virus treated?

How is HPV virus treated

There is no cure for the HPV virus. However, infection can often be eliminated by the person's own immune system. When cancer development is examined, it is observed that a cell leaves its natural cycle and divides as an abnormal. In the formation of cervical cancer, this abnormal division passes through some intermediate steps and cancer develops.

With advanced tests such as the smear test, a biopsy is taken from the cervix, and as a result of the test, some types of cancer that are likely to turn into cancer can be detected after years. Although HPV is not a curable virus, cancer formation can be prevented or minimized by treating the pre-cancerous findings caused by HPV.

In diseases such as cervical cancer screening or uterine cancer screening, we can easily detect abnormalities that we encounter as a result of the test in diseases that we see the great benefits of early diagnosis, and treatment can be started as quickly as possible. Cervical warts, genital warts are among the most well-known signs of virus-induced infection. Genital warts can be treated with medication or simple or surgical interventions.

What symptoms does HPV virus give in men and women?

Both genital warts in men and genital warts in women are easily detectable lesions. Genital warts that can be seen in the scrotum area, also called the penis and scrotum in men; In women, although the external genital areas called the vulva occur frequently, warts may appear on the throat, around the mouth and around the anus on the lips.

Low-risk HPV types, which manifest themselves with genital warts, give symptoms very easily, although the types of viruses mentioned above are directly related to cancer, they often do not show symptoms and can only be detected by screening tests. Therefore, the importance of early diagnosis in cancer is too much to be valued.

How to understand the HPV virus in men?

There is no known diagnosis to diagnose HPV in men.

What should be done to prevent HPV?

HPV vaccine is the most effective and important step of prevention. At the same time, circumcision and using condoms reduce the risk of virus transmission.

What is the HPV vaccine?

HPV vaccine has 3 different types and each vaccine is approved by the FDA. Approval for the vaccine has been obtained for children and adults aged 9-26. At the same time, women between the ages of 24-45 who have not been diagnosed with HPV before are vaccinated. Intramuscular vaccine HPV vaccine has a protective effect against warts and cancer development depending on the HPV types it contains. Vaccines should be administered intramuscularly at 0, 1 or 2 and 6 months.

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Tuesday, August 25, 2020

What is Colposcopy? How is it done?

Colposcopy is a procedure performed using a powerful light source and lenses for a detailed examination of the lower genital area. Let us state that colposcopy is actually the name given to the microscope that provides this examination. The examination is also called "colposcopic examination".

However, the procedure is also known as colposcopy among the people. This procedure is frequently performed to diagnose lesions in the cervix, vagina, vulva and perinal region. However, we can state that this procedure is needed in order to plan the treatment in the most accurate way. We will talk about why colposcopy is performed or whether anesthesia is applied before the procedure. But first, let's review who is doing this.


Who Can Have Colposcopy?

The answer to the question of who can undergo colposcopy actually covers a wide range of patients. Because, if necessary, this procedure can be performed on many patients. The most common situations can be listed as follows:

  • The patient's smear test results are not normal
  • The patient's HPV test result is positive
  • Abnormal smear test result during pregnancy
  • Evaluation of existing lesions before starting treatment

Of course, apart from these conditions, a more detailed examination of the lower genital system may be needed for some specific reasons. In this case, colposcopic examination will be used.

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How Is Colposcopy Performed?

Women can sometimes think that this procedure is one of the tough examinations. However, even local or general anesthesia is not needed before colposcopic examination. Because the procedure does not cause any pain or ache. We can say that it is not much different from a routine gynecological examination for the patient. The patient is asked to lie on the gynecology examination table on his back. Afterwards, an instrument used in the examination is placed in the vagina area in order to visualize the cervix much more clearly.

The currents in the cervix are cleaned and a special liquid is applied immediately afterwards. Thanks to this liquid, problematic tissues in the cervix take a color close to white. The gynecologist and obstetrician examines these tissues with color change and if necessary, cervical biopsy is performed. In this process, a very small piece of tissue is taken and sent for pathological examination. As a result, we can say that colposcopic examination is completed in a short time and with a very comfortable process for the patient.

Why Is Colposcopy Performed?

Why Is Colposcopy Performed

Of course, colposcopy procedure is not performed for only one reason. First of all, let us state that this procedure is performed when it is necessary to examine in detail the inflammatory lesions, condylomas (warts), polyps and precancerous lesions. This procedure may also be required before the treatment of the lesions is planned.

Abnormal pap smear tests of the patients during pregnancy or outside of pregnancy are among the reasons for this detailed examination. However, if the HPV test is positive, we can say that colposcopic examination enters the circuit.

We can say that one of the most common types of cancer in women is cervical cancer. As in all types of cancer, early diagnosis is of great importance in cervical cancer. For this reason, even if not in every woman, some patients may need to enlarge the cervix with a colposcope and examine it in more detail. If deemed necessary by the physician, endocervical curettage can be applied and pathological examination can be performed.

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Is Colposcopy Performed With Anesthesia?

One of the frequently asked questions is whether or not anesthesia was performed before colposcopy. Anesthesia is absolutely not required before this procedure. Because the procedure does not contain any intervention that may cause distress for the patient. For this reason, local or general anesthesia is not required.

What are the Colposcopy Indications?

We can list the colposcopic examination indications as follows:

  • CIN, HSIL, LSIL or cancer
  • HPV infection suspected
  • Recurrent infection status
  • An abnormal appearance in the cervix


When Will The Colposcopy Result Be Determined?

The colposcopy procedure applied to the patient is completed within approximately 30 minutes. If tissue sample is taken from the patient and sent for pathological examination, the time for the result may vary depending on the density in the laboratory. This period can be only 1 day or up to 5 days. For this reason, it would not be correct to talk about a clear time frame.

Is Colposcopy Procedure Painful?

This procedure does not cause pain, and it is because of this that there is no need for anesthesia before the procedure. Sometimes, women may wonder if there is pain after the procedure. We can say that no pain is felt after the colposcopic examination.

However, sometimes it may be necessary to take a tissue sample from the patient after this procedure and undergo pathological examination of this tissue. In this case, a very mild pain sensation may occur. However, we should state that this feeling can also be controlled with the use of pain medication prescribed by the doctor. Because when the tissue sample is taken from the cervix, there is usually no pain. Only a feeling of discomfort may occur.

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What Does Colposcopic Biopsy Mean?

What Does Colposcopic Biopsy Mean

In its most general form, colposcopic biopsy is taking a tissue sample from the patient after the colposcopy procedure. The purpose of taking this tissue sample is to send it for pathological examination. In which situations colposcopic biopsy is needed, we can list as follows:

  • Observing an abnormal tissue condition during the examination
  • ASCUS, CIN 1, CIN 2, CIN 3, LSIL, HSIL or AGUS in the pap smear test applied
  • Smear result of patients with HPV not being normal
  • Continuous inflammation and infection detection in smear tests
  • There is a suspicion of cancer precursor lesion
  • New items can also be added to this list. Sometimes, biopsy may be required only if the patient has some complaints.

What is a Cervical Biopsy?

If the tissue sample is taken from the patient's cervix for pathological examination, this is called cervical biopsy. Generally, this procedure is needed if there is a finding of cervical cancer. We can state that cervical biopsy may be required to diagnose cancer at the earliest possible period.

At this point, the most common concern of women is whether the biopsy has damaged the cervix. Of course, this procedure does not cause any damage to the cervix. Therefore, women never need to worry about cervical biopsy.

It should be noted that the piece of tissue taken in the biopsy procedure is extremely small and the cervix area is restored in a short time. Cervical biopsy does not change the probability of pregnancy in women. In other words, it does not prevent pregnancy and is not a procedure that prevents women from having vaginal delivery in the future.

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Colposcopy Pathology Results

Taking tissue from the patient after colposcopy and undergoing pathological examination provides access to extremely important data. Let us state that pathology results are generally evaluated as "normal" or "abnormal". If an abnormal situation is not found, it will be sufficient only to perform smear tests regularly and not to disrupt routine examinations. Sometimes it may be necessary to wait for a while and then perform a colposcopic examination again.

How Much Are Colposcopy Prices?

One of the frequently wondered issues is colposcopy prices. However, talking about the price will be misleading for patients. Because we can say that the prices also vary depending on various factors such as which physician is preferred, whether the tissue sample is taken from the patient during the procedure. However, to give an idea, let us state that the prices can vary between 2500 TL and 6000 TL. You can write your questions about colposcopic examination in the comments section.

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Monday, August 10, 2020

HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) Infection in Men - Symptoms, Daignosis and Treatment

HPV Infection in Men

HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) Infection in Men - Symptoms, Daignosis and Treatment

Genital warts within the scope of sexually transmitted warts HPV virus (Human papilloma virus) as a result of infection in both women and men developed as a result of the appearance of cauliflower, sometimes in a single region, a few decorated areas, sometimes as small as a head 1-2, sometimes a large number, sometimes 3-4 diameter can reach painless, partially hard masses. HPV infection is increasingly common in our country. It creates serious health problems in both men and women.

HPV (human papiloma virus) infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection. More than half of men and women who are sexually active become infected with this virus at some time in their lives. In the United States alone, 14 million new cases of HPV infection occur each year. This is because the virus usually manifests itself in women, there is a false belief that men are not infected or just carriers of this infection. In this article, you can find the results, symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of HPV infections in men.

What is HPV?

"Human papillorna virus" is a type of virus that causes the formation of wart-shaped masses called condyloma(condyloma acuminatum), which causes infection in both male and female genital areas and mucosa of this region.Once HPV enters the body, it settles into cells and leads to periodic recurring infections.Although the HPV virus and its associated genital warts infection are a group of sexually transmitted diseases, it is known that they can be transmitted outside of sexual intercourse very rarely.

How is HPV transmitted?

The virus is transmitted through the skin and mucous membranes of the person's infected region, such as the penis or the female external genitalia, to the genitals of the individual or to areas such as the breech of the mouth.

HPV virus Infection in Men

The HPV virus, which causes cervical cancer, is also known to cause penis cancer in men.It is important to remember that men are usually carriers and therefore protection is just as important as women.Genital warts also pose significant risks for male patients and should be treated immediately if detected.

How does the HPV virus cause symptoms in men?

HPV incubation period after exposure is variable according to the type of incubation between 2 months and 6 years following, in the genital area in women or men, anusde the mouth, varying sizes and numbers of warts (genital warts, condyloma lesions) creates. In other words, some people receive the virus 2 months after the wart can be removed in some people this virus does not give any brlirti for years, for example 5 years after the genital wart may appear as. Oral sex can be transmitted to the mouth, as well as to the neighborhood or anal sex around the anus or into the condyloma genital wart lozions can be. It does not provide full protection in HPV.For this reason, warts may appear not only in the penis but also in the entire genital area.In fact, these warts can spread to the abdomen, groin and breech. In short, sexually transmitted diseases that protect the condom, HPV can not be a full protective.

According to studies by the American Cancer Society (ACS), approximately 2,120 people are diagnosed with penis cancer annually in the United States, and approximately 2,950 men are diagnosed with anal/breech cancer.

The risk of Anal cancer is about 17 times higher in gay and bisexual men than in men who have sex with women alone. Men with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) are also at higher risk of getting this cancer.

In Western societies, in both men and women, more than half of head and neck cancers are associated with HPV (especially tongue Root and tonsil cancers).

There are more than 50 types of HPV. About 30 of them are associated with genital infections. These species can be low or high risk. There may not be any indication of the species being at low risk. High - risk ones can cause cellular changes in the penis and anus and penile, anal and oral (head and neck) cancers.

In most men with HPV, the infection does not lead to any complaints, so people do not realize they have the infection.

If you have an infection that does not pass, you may also have genital warts with the risk of cancer in the following areas:
  • penis
  • scrotum
  • anus

Also polyps (e.g. laryngeal papillomas) in the mouth and throat region)

If you notice abnormal skin changes in these areas, see your doctor for further evaluation.

What increases the risk of transmission of HPV in men?

Polygamy is one of the reasons that facilitates the transmission of HPV.Starting sex at an early age and having an unsafe sexual relationship is one of the causes of cancer related to this type of HPV virus. The diagnosis of Genital warts can easily be made by an experienced physician with the eye.It is also possible to diagnose suspected warts and/or by taking a biopsy or swab to make a typification.

HPV is transmitted in both men and women through vaginal, anal, oral intercourse or contact between partners. Most people won't be aware that their partner carries this infection because they don't always have a symptom. Men have less incidence than women.

HPV can be transmitted to any man who has had sex with people who carry the virus, but the following conditions increase the risk of transmission and HPV-related diseases.
  • uncircumcised men
  • men with weak immune systems due to HIV or organ transplants
  • men who have homosexual intercourse

What areas of HPV can cause cancer in men?

When HPV, which can cause penis cancer in men, is located around the anus, cancer can be found in the rectum, which is the last part of the anus and large intestine.In addition, HPV, especially through oral sex in men, adenoids, tonsils, tongue, larynx cancer, and in some cases can cause cancer of the esophagus.

How is HPV diagnosed in men?

Currently, there is no recommended test to detect HPV in men (in women, HPV-DNA is looked at in the sample taken with Pap-smear).

It is important to tell your doctor if there are signs or symptoms associated with HPV; such as any abnormal skin growth or changes in your penis, scrotal, anal or throat area. These may be early signs of cancer. For gay and bisexual men who have a high risk of anal cancer caused by HPV, anal Pap tests can be administered. In an Anal Pap test, the doctor collects the cells in the anus and then has them checked in the lab for abnormalities.

The diagnosis of genital warts in men is made by visually checking the genital area. Some doctors may apply a solution to help identify warts that cannot be seen. But the test is not conclusive. Sometimes normal skin is mistakenly described as a wart.

How is HPV virus infections treated in men?

There is currently no cure for HPV. Warts caused by HPV can be treated with dermatological approaches; polyps in the head and neck area can be treated with interferon, anti-viral drugs and surgical approaches. HPV-related cancers have a high chance of treatment, especially when diagnosed early. Early intervention is important, so you should see a doctor immediately if you are experiencing HPV-related signs and symptoms.

The best method for treating condyloma in men is cauterization.In men, cauterization is performed in order of options for condyloma treatment and evaporation is performed according to the doctor's option with laser.In addition to burning genital warts, there is an option to freeze, surgically remove and treat small warts by applying special creams.In men, the cauterization method is the most permanent method among the options of HPV treatment.

How can you reduce your risk of HPV?

One of the best ways to protect yourself against HPV is the HPV vaccine. Although you are advised to be vaccinated until age 12, you can still be vaccinated until age 26.

- HPV vaccine guidelines renewed! What is the HPV vaccine?

In older age, you can protect yourself as follows:
  • Limiting the number of sexual partners, being monogamous
  • Using condoms accurately and consistently
  • Avoid sexual contact with a partner if you have genital warts

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Sunday, January 1, 2017

Human Papillomavirus Infection Animation

The above video discloses the reasons for the spread and presence of Human Papillomavirus. HPV virus is also found in etiology in both head and neck cancer. It has been understood in recent years that it can be easily transmitted by mucosal contact. In the past, this viral was thought to be sexually transmitted only. A virus that spreads among young people over the last years and gradually becomes fat. The well-behaved subgroup viruses cause warts; carcinogenic viruses can cause cancer of the head and neck region, uterus, anal region.

A protective 9-valent vaccine has been developed (Gardasil 9).

You can find details about "AAAA" at >> Kulak, Burun, Boğaz Bölgesi HPV Enfeksiyonu Sıklığı ... / HPV Aşısı Erkeklere ve Bayanlara Yapılmalı / İnsan Papilloma Visürü (HPV), Korunma Yolları, Ağızda Viral Papillom ve Tedavisi

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Murat Enoz, MD, Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgeon - ENT Doctor in Istanbul
Private Office:
Address: İncirli Cad. No:41, Kat:4 (Dilek Patisserie Building), Postal code: 34147, Bakırköy - İstanbul
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