Showing posts with label Health News. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Health News. Show all posts

Monday, September 28, 2020

Dry Nose and Treatment

Dry Nose TreatmentThe precautions to be taken and general treatment principles in case of dryness in the nose can be summarized as follows. There are a variety of symptoms that can indicate an extremely dry nose. Nasal functions such as sniffing and cleaning air before it enters the body may be impaired. The skin in the nasal passage can crack due to aching cracks. There may be blistering of the skin and mucus inside and outside the nose. This can lead to bacterial infections that can make your crusting symptoms worse. An extremely dry nose can sometimes be caused by a side effect of a drug such as an antihistamine. While effective for a runny nose, antihistamine sprays and medications often contain atropine, and atropine can dry the nasal passage. Environmental factors such as temperature and lack of moisture can contribute to dry nose.

What Are The Factors That Cause Dry Nose?

Environmental factors; Dry nose occurs due to the decrease in humidity at air temperature. In addition, hot and humid environments can cause nasal dryness.

Taking antihistamine group drugs is also among the causes of dryness.

Nasal inflammation (rhinitis) is a runny nose disease, but sometimes it can cause nasal dryness.

Some bacteria and germs can cause dry nose.

Nasal sprays given for nasal discharge can also cause dryness in long-term use.

Consumption of water below the required amount can cause dry mouth as well as dry nose.

Sjögren's syndrome is the cause of dryness in that the disease is caused by the drying of the mucosa. It causes dryness in the moist areas of the body, eyes and nose.

Hormone changes can cause nasal dryness, especially during menopause. Dryness may occur in the mouth, nose, vagina and eyes.

High blood pressure disease can also cause a dry nose accompanying bleeding.

Environmental Precautions

Avoiding dry, very hot or very cold, air-conditioned air conditions that may cause nasal dryness or bringing the humidity level of the ambient air to normal with cold steam machines or other humidifiers.

Treatment for Nasal Mucosa

Nasal lavage with saline water (use of sinus rinse, ocean water or home-made saline), drops, sprays or ointments containing petroleum jelly, panthenol, vitamins A and E, as well as ointments containing ocean salt and glycerin derivative, make the nasal mucosa Prevention of moisture loss, regeneration of the mucosa and increasing ciliary movements can be achieved.

Dry Nose

In the photo above, there is a dry and crusty appearance on the mucosa that results from the insertion of paper towels into the nose.

Dry Nose Treatment

In the photo above, due to the habit of mixing nose with fingers, irritation and dryness of the mucous membrane on the protruding area with septum deviation draws attention.

Regulation of Nutrition

Increasing oral fluid intake is very important for the moisture balance in the nasal mucosa. Drinking at least 7-9 glasses of water or fruit juice a day, especially fruits and vegetables with high water content, will be beneficial for moisturizing the mucous membranes.

Apart from these, as excessive use of alcohol, coffee and salt may cause the mucous membranes to dry, reducing their use will also be beneficial.

Stopping Medications That Can Cause Dry Nose

There are many medications (such as allergy medications) that can cause nasal rinsing. Discontinuation of these drugs - in consultation with the doctor - will also be useful in the treatment of nasal dryness.

Murat Enoz, MD, Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgeon - ENT Doctor in Istanbul
Private Office:
Address: İncirli Cad. No:41, Kat:4 (Dilek Patisserie Building), Postal code: 34147, Bakırköy - İstanbul
Appointment Phone: +90 212 561 00 52
Mobile phone: +90 0533 6550199
Fax: +90 212 542 74 47

Thursday, August 13, 2020

The Melatonin - Definition, Benefits, Effects and Secretion

What is Melatonin? What Are The Benefits of Melatonin?

The Melatonin - Definition, Benefits, Effects and Secretion

Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the brain, especially at night. The release of the hormone melatonin, whose main tasks include maintaining the body's biological clock and adjusting its rhythm, begins early in the night after dark and reaches its highest level, such as 02.00-04.00. The production and release of melatonin, also known as the’ dark hormone', ends with light. Melatonin is a hormone that regulates the sleep cycle and the body's biological clock, defined as the circadian rhythm, secreted by the pineal gland or pineal gland, located in the central region of the brain and located between both hemispheres. The digestive system begins to synthesize the hormone, which is produced at low levels by the organs of the stomach and intestine as well as by the bone marrow, retina, skin and white blood cells, as well as by darkening the air. In addition to regulating sleep rhythm, Melatonin plays an important role in biological and physiological processes such as strengthening the immune system, adjusting body temperature, and cell renewal. Melatonin is the most powerful antioxidant known because it has the ability to dissolve in lipophilic or, in other words, fat-type solvents. With this feature, melatonin, which can reach all parts of the body and is secreted in an intense amount during a person's sleep in a dark environment, supports the mechanisms of maintaining the vital activities of the metabolism. Melatonin has a positive effect on sleep quality, regardless of sleep duration. Therefore, the invention of the lamp, industrialization and the effect of modern life between 23.00 and 05.00 hours of light exposure to sleep or do not sleep at all in people who are limited to the secretion of melatonin this condition leads to sleep disorders.

The most important factor affecting the synthesis and release of melatonin is light. Night Lights should be removed during sleep in order to benefit from melatonin, whose synthesis is blocked in illuminated environment.

Definition of Melatonin Hormone

Melatonin, which is secreted from the pineal gland in the brain dark at night during sleep, is a hormone that acts as a shield against cancer as well as protecting the person against various diseases. Melatonin is derived from a substance called tryptophan.

The light at the beginning or end of the dark phase suppresses the release of melatonin, even if it is of sufficient intensity for a short period of time. Melatonin production is directly related to the length of the night. The longer the night, the longer the production of the hormone melatonin. As a matter of fact, melatonin, which is produced more during the winter season when the nights are longer, decreases during the summer days when the days are longer.

To release enough melatonin, you need to sleep in dark environments. If Night Light is used, pale red light should be preferred. Taking tablets/computers before falling asleep at night can cause disruption of the release of the hormone melatonin.

During sleep in front of the television television should not be left on, enough for body health and a regular sleep pattern should be established, work in the daytime hours should be preferred in life. If there is no solution, drug treatments such as melatonin supplements should be preferred.

Melatonin "Hormone of Darkness"

The hormone melatonin, which is secreted from the pineal gland in the brain, has a serious effect on human health. Its main task is to adjust the circadian rhythm of the body. But it also has a significant share on the regulation of sleep rhythm and body temperature. All structures in the body due to lipophilic property that enables access to the most powerful antioxidant, melatonin, allows the fulfillment of several important tasks such as cell renewal and boost the immune system. The air must be dark for the release of the hormone melatonin from the brain. This condition is controlled by pinealocytes or, in other words, light-sensitive cells in the brain. So when it's light, the release of melatonin stops, and when it's dark, it starts again. That's why melatonin is also known as the hormone Dracula. Melatonin, whose release begins to increase between 21.00 and 22.00 hours in the evening, peaks by reaching its highest level between 02.00 and 04.00 hours. It decreases again between 05.00 and 07.00 hours, and after this hour interval it is drawn towards the lower bound, either basal or with a different expression. On average, a total of 30 mg in a person's body overnight. melatonin is synthesized. Thus, the level of melatonin, which is 0-20 pg/dl in the blood during daylight hours, rises to 50 to 200 pg/ml during night hours.

Approximately 85% of the hormone melatonin is secreted from the pineal gland, while the remaining 15% is released by the stomach, intestine, bone marrow, retina, skin and white blood cells. Melatonin, which is associated with the presence of many diseases from cancer to heart disease, is a must for physiological and psychological health because it is the most potent antioxidant known to cause an antidepressant effect in people. Therefore, watching television at night during the hours of melatonin secretion, spending time with cell phones, exposure to light and especially blue light are among the factors that decrease sleep quality and the body's resistance to diseases.

Sleeping in the dark doesn't just provide deep sleep. Dark environments are also essential for the secretion of melatonin. Although it varies from person to person, this hormone is most secreted between 23:00 – 05:00 hours. The basic logic is that the hormone melatonin is secreted from pineolacite cells of the pineal gland. These cells are sensitive to light and interrupt the secretion of melatonin when a light stimulus reaches the brain. This hormone is also the cause of the event called Jetlag ( a problem with the biological rhythm).

Melatonin hormone and light

For millions of years, people have been living according to latitude and seasonal conditions, adapting to an average of 12 hours of light and 12 hours of dark days.  The use of artificial light during night hours was made possible by the discovery of fire 250 thousand years ago. Going back 5 thousand years, it is seen that oil lamps are used at night. While the lighting of the streets with gas lights at night took place in the 1700s, with the invention of electricity, artificial lighting has reached its present dimensions.

Light has extensive effects on human physiology and behavior. Light can cause change in human physiology by an inappropriate timing. An example of body organizations being affected by the distortions triggered by light can be given. Indeed, light acutely affects neuroendocrine systems, while reducing melatonin production and increasing cortisone production.

The biological clock regulates the order and distribution of sleep during the day. It depends on the biological clock at which time the sleep-inducing substances or hormones that increase the hours of Stay Awake will be active. One of the most important factors guiding the biological clock is light.

The light detected by the retinal layer reaches the relevant Center in the brain, which sends stimulating messages to the centers that miss sleep or secrete sleep-inducing substances and hormones, depending on what amount of light is present during the day and night. In this context, people are more prone to sleep during the day, or although they want to sleep easily, there are slices. The person who cannot sleep during the night hours, who is very tired, can not fall asleep easily in the morning and noon hours, even though he wants to or needs to, and although he is tired, he seems talkative and energetic.  In contrast, melatonin, one of the hormones that brings sleep, is secreted more after the evening hours and makes it easier to fall asleep at night.

The Relationship Between Sleep Patterns and Melatonin

A regular and adequate sleep pattern, the habit of going to bed at the same time makes more use of the hormone melatonin.

For human health, it is important for the brain to live 4 seasons and to perform night and day at the appropriate hours of bioritme. People with sleep patterns, such as tarlak birds, who tend to get up early, start their day with an energetic, high perception of the brain, thanks to the hormones secreted together with the breakfast made with the proper nutrients after waking up early. As a matter of fact, when you go to bed early and start the day early, you have the opportunity to benefit from hormones like melatonin that the body secretes at the highest level.

How is Melatonin Secreted?

Melatonin is secreted by pineolacite cells located in the pineal gland in the brain. Light-sensitive pineolacite cells increase hormone release in a linear manner with darkening of the air. Tryptophan, expressed as the main ingredient used in the making of the hormone Melatonin, primarily converts to serotonin. Serotonin, which is secreted throughout the day and is also known as the happiness hormone, is replaced by melatonin hormone with darkening of the air. Photoreceptors, identified as photosensitive retinal cells, are thought to be linked to pinealocytes located in the brain. With the disappearance of daylight, these cells transfer information that there is a decrease in the amount of light to the pineal gland in the brain. In our country, melatonin is secreted for longer periods of time due to the longer nights during the winter months. However, this situation is directly related to the age of the person. In other words, the amount of release of the hormone melatonin decreases as the person gets older. Exposure of the human body to light is the key mechanism in the differentiation of sleep patterns. The light source stimulates nerves that extend from the retina to the hypothalamic area in the brain. After the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) region in the hypothalamus receives information about the change of light, it sends this information to the pineal gland and initiates the release of melatonin. This creates a feeling of sleep and wakefulness. As melatonin release increases, warnings to the brain are less perceived and sleep sensation occurs. High levels of melatonin continue to be present in the blood level until the end of sleep. 

What Are The Benefits of Melatonin?

There are many studies that have shown that melatonin increases life expectancy and reduces signs of aging by positively affecting the immune system and reducing stress.

Many studies have also been conducted for the relationship of the hormone melatonin, which is thought to have a positive effect on immunity, to cancer. In the light of scientific studies, it has been experimentally observed that melatonin limits growth in many types of tumors. Melatonin plays a suppressive role in experimental breast tumors. When Melatonin is given in therapeutic doses, it has the effect of directly killing tumor cells.

The increase in breast cancer risk is thought to be associated with the interruption of the hormone melatonin, which is secreted in the dark, due to light. Studies of women who work at night to decrease the secretion of melatonin at night because it's Bright, has quite a lot of developing breast cancer than women working during daylight hours. Night-time employees are at increased risk of cancer when melatonin levels are suppressed as a result of dark environments lighting up. In order to make enough use of melatonin, the time of falling asleep should not be delayed as much as possible and should be passed to sleep no later than 23.00.

There is also an association between melatonin levels and depression. Melatonin levels were low and cortisol levels were high in depression patients. A parallel can be established between the increase in Melatonin levels and the use of treatment. In fact, many depression drugs used to treat depression increase the secretion of melatonin through the brain chemicals it affects.

Melatonin, which allows the body to determine the time of sleep and wakefulness, is a hormone that begins to release with darkening of the air and peaks its release at late hours. The hormone melatonin, which directly affects the release of sunlight and artificial lights, plays an important role in strengthening the immune system. Melatonin, which also has an important effect on the regulation of the body's biorithm, is also effective on many physiological functions. Some of Melatonin's other functions are listed as follows:
  • It improves sleep quality regardless of sleep duration. For efficient sleep, the circadian rhythm is quite important. Having melatonin levels below normal limits can lead to sleep disorders.
  • With its antioxidant effect, it prevents damage to cells.
  • It provides protection against infection and immune system diseases. It is extremely important for eye health.
  • It provides protective effect against different types of cancer. Research has shown that melatonin has a significant effect, especially on breast and colon cancer.
  • It has a positive effect on acute pancreatitis and kidney inflammation.
  • The benzodiazepine group of drugs used for sleep disorders and anxiety helps to reduce withdrawal symptoms seen in dose reduction.
  • Reduces the effect of stress factor on the immune system.
  • It has a protective effect on the cardiovascular system.
  • Research has found that people who work at night get sick more quickly and have a greater risk of developing cancer. Women who work at night have an increased risk of breast cancer. A strong immune system is an important hormone for a vigorous and healthy body. Studies have shown that melatonin reduces and suppresses growth in many cancer tumors.

What Foods Are Melatonin Found In?

The hormone melatonin, which protects the body's biological clock, which can only be secreted in the dark environment during night sleep, can protect the person from various diseases. It is claimed that even a low level increase in the hormone Melatonin produces positive results in terms of Health. Especially as people get older, melatonin secretion begins to decrease. In this case, the removal of melatonin from natural sources is of great importance. Consuming melatonin-rich ingredients can help those with sleep problems.

The fruit is rich in Melatonin, which is recommended for people who complain of sleep problems with this feature. The melatonin content in cherries is also good for insomnia problems. While nuts and walnuts stand out as a natural source of melatonin, they contain the sleep hormone melatonin, which helps those with sleep problems thanks to tryptophan. 

How is Melatonin Increased?

If the levels of Melatonin are below normal, it leads to many sleep disorders, especially insomnia. It can also lead to many ailments such as fatigue, weakness, palpitations, anxiety disorder, depression, sexual aversion and dysfunctions. Studies have found that the hormone Melatonin has positive effects on the immune system and increases life expectancy by reducing stress and reducing signs of aging. Although many of the effects of melatonin, a hormone released in the dark, on the body have not yet been proven, scientific research on this subject is in full swing. To increase the level of Melatonin, smoking and alcohol consumption should be stopped altogether. In addition, limiting coffee consumption and avoiding stress increases the release of melatonin. Sleeping before midnight, reducing the amount of food eaten in the evening, increases melatonin production. In addition, not spending time in bed at night with the phone, not using a night light and isolating the room from light completely supports the production of melatonin. If you are having trouble sleeping and you wake up without enough rest, you can have your melatonin levels measured by a specialist physician and, if recommended by the physician, you can take melatonin supplements.

What are the foods that increase melatonin?

Melatonin cannot be taken directly through foods, but tryptophan in the following foods promotes the synthesis of melatonin and increases the release of this hormone:

  • Red meat and fish
  • Bananas, strawberries, apples, oranges, blackberries, cranberries
  • Peanuts, walnuts, pistachios, almonds, chestnuts
  • Eggplant, spinach, broccoli, peas, tomatoes, mushrooms, potatoes, cucumbers
  • Dried beans, chickpeas, sesame seeds, flax seeds

Melatonin Deficiency

High levels of melatonin in the body decreases with age. When a young person has 100 units of melatonin, it drops to 30 units in advanced age. If this level falls more than normal along with other factors, the aging process speeds up, the rate of contracting diseases increases. Factors such as insufficient sleep, stress, restlessness trigger melatonin deficiency. Melatonin deficiency triggers distress and depression, resulting in further increase of the deficiency can create a vicious cycle. 

As is known, the rate of developing cancer in visually impaired people is very low. The reason for this is thought to be related to melatonin.

The environment that sleeps at night must be absolutely lightless. In addition, because it suppresses melatonin production in electromagnetic waves, there should be no television, computer, mobile phone, etc.devices at night in the sleeping areas or should not be plugged into an outlet. Especially the television and mobile phone screen should not be stopped for a long time.

Smoking, alcohol use, excessive coffee consumption, and some drugs can suppress the production of the hormone melatonin.

Many symptoms occur when it comes to the hormone melatonin deficiency. Therefore, melatonin deficiency is easily noticed. These symptoms are as follows::

● Sleep disorders occur.
● A constant feeling of weakness occurs because it causes chronic fatigue.
● Palpitations occur.
 Sexual dysfunction and sexual dysfunction.
● Psychological problems such as depression and anxiety occur.

These symptoms, which occur especially in people who work night shifts or who like to sleep in the morning, cause a decrease in the quality of life. In addition, melatonin deficiency, which causes much earlier aging, brings many diseases. Therefore, the quality of sleep should be considered.

Should Melatonin Hormone Pill Be Used?

Many points need to be paid attention to the increase of melatonin secretion, which is of great importance for human health. It is vital for the release of this hormone, especially if the night's sleep is done in the dark. However, there are some melatonin hormone pills and synthetic melatonin bottles that are ideal for people who have to work at night. The price of the hormone melatonin varies according to the type of drug. Although it is best to take this hormone naturally, which the pharmaceutical industry is particularly focused on, medical support in essential situations helps eliminate many problems.

How Is The Hormone Melatonin Measured?

Melatonin is a hormone people who are looking for an answer to the question How to measure, you need to consult a physician who is an expert in the field. First of all, the condition of the patient is examined by testing the hormone melatonin. If the person has a severe melatonin deficiency, the most appropriate treatment method is determined.

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Wednesday, August 12, 2020

What's The Sleep Apnea?

Stopped Breathing During Sleep More Than 10 Seconds: Apnea

What's The Sleep Apnea?

Insomnia with sleep apnea sleep apnea in second place while most visible in the beginning it is not uncommon for it to cause.

Sleep apnea is a serious sleep disorder in which breathing stops abruptly during sleep. The frequency of common ailment in our country is between 5% and 10%. Sleep apnea stops breathing in his sleep but is not each that appears. In order to be able to call respiratory disorder sleep apnea, respiratory arrest must be at least 10 seconds. There are different subtypes of the disorder. What are the symptoms of sleep apnea? Sleep apnea is a condition in which a person's breathing stops during sleep. At the moment of drowning, the oxygen level in the blood drops, allowing the brain to wake up. The brain awakens the body to inform it that respiratory function has stopped.

What are the types of sleep apnea?

Sleep apnea is divided into 3 main subtypes::

1) Obstructive Sleep Apnea: it is the type that occurs due to factors leading to obstruction in the upper respiratory tract. This form is most commonly seen.

2) Central sleep apnea: it is the form that occurs when the brain does not send proper signals to the muscles that control breathing.

3) mixed sleep apnea: mixed sleep apnea syndrome, both obstructive and central sleep apnea occur together in the person. 

People with sleep apnea may wake up several times a night, people whose sleep is often interrupted can not remember the next day. This condition also causes a feeling of tiredness and weakness in the person during repeated periods of time.

While you were sleeping enough sleep during the day and tired of thinking cause sluggish browsing and shields people from sleep apnea should be investigated.

Causes Of Sleep Apnea

The cause of sleep apnea syndrome, according to the plant (central), obstructive (obstructive), and mixed type are seen where the two of them together under three different headings that can be evaluated. The brain and breathing sleep apnea breathing did not get the command-induced sleep disorder where the brain stops.
In obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, the upper respiratory tract is usually caused by enlarged tonsils, sagging soft palate, or narrowing due to weight.

Although obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is more common in men, it can also manifest itself during menopause in women. There are recurrent constrictions and closures in the airways due to various hormones, weight and anatomical factors.

Sleep apnea can cause breathing interruptions during sleep. Sleep apnea syndrome is more common in people who snore loudly, are overweight, have high blood pressure, or have a nose or throat disorder. Sleep apnea causes low levels of oxygen and high levels of carbon dioxide in the blood.
Starting from the inside of the nose and mouth extending into and narrows the air passages due to respiratory diseases in all cases of sleep apnea may be the cause.

Sleep apnea can be associated with high blood pressure and irregular heartbeat, heart attack and stroke, or daytime sleepiness. Sleep problems linked to sleep apnea usually due to other diseases may develop. Although the cause is unknown, sleep apnea, some conditions that can lead to;
  • Another sleep disorder-related ailments
  • Diseases related to upper respiratory tract
  • Drug use
  • Substance abuse
  • Being overweight
  • Enlarged adenoids

The causes of sleep apnea vary in obstructive and central form

Obstructive sleep apnea causes

  •       excess weight
  •       male gender
  •       a thick neck (the neck circumference is 43 centimeters above the risk is greater in men.)
  •       having narrow airways
  •       use of sleeping pills or tranquilizers
  •       alcohol and cigarette use
  •       blocked nose for various reasons
  •       hereditary susceptibility to obstructive sleep apnea

Causes of central sleep apnea

  •       brain infection called encephalitis
  •       cerebral palsy
  •       brain stem problems
  •       heart diseases
  •       using narcotic painkillers

What Are The Symptoms Of Sleep Apnea?

Sleep apnea is one of the most common symptoms of sleep apnea. Most people with this disease do not realize that their breathing stops during their sleep at night.

When the body stops breathing, the brain gives a wake-up command. People with sleep apnea may wake up many times during the night, but they may not notice it. 

Symptoms of sleep apnea:
  • Daytime insomnia
  • Headache
  • Irritability
  • Lack of concentration
  • Memory problems
  • Snore
  • Throat ache
  • Dry mouth
  • Hypertension
  • Heart rhythm disorder

Also headaches, forgetfulness, depression, wake up in the morning, vigorous and excessive daytime sleepiness and fatigue are among the observable symptoms of sleep apnea.

 The symptoms of sleep apnea are seen during the day but also can be encountered with many serious table. If the patient is obese, difficulty in losing weight, respiratory failure in lung patients, sexual aversion and impotence, uncontrollable diabetes can be cited as an example of these disadvantages. In addition, sleep apnea is constant fatigue and lack of concentration during the day, it will cause a person can lead to traffic and work accidents.

Diagnostic Methods

People who have long-term complaints with sleep need to see a doctor as soon as possible.

Your physician will first refer to your medical history and then perform a physical examination. Sleep apnea is the most common type of sleep apnea.

This test, which is performed by monitoring the patient's sleep with electrodes placed on the body in the Sleep Laboratory, is useful in determining the type of sleep apnea, as well as in determining the apnea.

According to the patient's request, polysomnography tests can also be performed at home with the approval of the physician. Electrodes attached to the body 1 hour before sleep can take recording for about 6 to 7 hours. 4 hours of sleep is enough to get results.

The number of apnea and hypoapnea is one of the most important factors in diagnosis. Sleep apnea is a condition in which breathing stops during sleep and hypoapnesi slows down. If the person has stopped breathing more than five times in an hour period, the person can be diagnosed with sleep apnea.

Sleep apnea test

Sleep apnea test is the most important stage in the process of detection and treatment of the disease. A sleep apnea test called "polysomnography" is a test in which brain activity and respiratory events are recorded all night long.

 The sleep apnea test is based on the measurement of brain waves, eye movements, airflow through the mouth and nose, snoring, heart rate, leg movements and oxygen levels during sleep. Sleep apnea patients to do a test to get a good night's sleep, your room must remain in. During the Test, signals received by cables connected to various points of the body are transferred to the computer outside the room. By examination of the records received till the morning, stopped breathing several times during sleep, how long it stops, when it stops, how they are influenced by the values and heart rate oxygen and bust into a deep sleep and no where as many parameters can be considered.

A diagnosis of sleep apnea

To diagnose the disease, your doctor first questions your complaints in detail. After that, he does a general examination and an otolaryngologist. The upper airways are examined by means of a bulcable cannula with a camera at the tip called flexibl emdoscopy. Radiological examinations such as MRI and CT show airways and constrictions are evaluated.

If necessary, the patient is admitted to the Sleep Center to undergo a more detailed evaluation. A sleep analysis test called polysomnography is essential to make a definitive diagnosis of the disease. This test measures the duration and number of breathing stops. In addition, it can also give information such as heart rhythm, blood oxygen percentage, severity of snoring sound.

Treatment of Apnea

Sleep apnea is a serious sleep disorder that needs to be treated. Treatment varies according to the type of apnea, the depth of the apnea and the characteristics of the person's respiratory tract.
An “air machine” called CPAP is one of these treatment methods. The mask attached to this device attaches to the patient and transmits it to the patient in pressurized air determined by the doctor.
The device is used during the night and compressed air prevents closure of the airways. In this way, the patient does not experience problems such as breathing stops in his sleep and the sleep pattern still comes with better quality.

People with sleep apnea are also advised to make changes in their lifestyle. Reduce snoring and sleep apnea to improve your symptoms, their changes in the lifestyle of people is extremely important.

Snoring or sleep apnea syndrome people who first quit smoking and alcohol, to control their weight, to do regular sports, just before sleep, do not eat heavy meals, sleep in the side position, such as simple but provides suggestions that make their lives easier.

In some patients, a special apparatus is prepared by the dentist to open the airway by pushing the lower jaw forward.

Finally, in the case of the negative outcome of the above treatment options sleep apnea syndrome, or the structures of the throat (adenoids, uvula) the air path is blocked during sleep when the tissues of the throat narrowing the airway to reduce an operation that can be completely eliminated or can be planned.

Sleep apnea treatments are listed as lifestyle changes, surgical treatments and positive air pressure according to the level of the disease. First of all, it is essential to get rid of excess weight. Smoking and alcohol use should be avoided.

Advanced strictures in the upper respiratory tract may require surgical treatment. Sleep apnea is the most common type of sleep apnea. These devices prevent sleep apnea by keeping the upper airways open continuously during sleep. The device is used through a silicone air mask. Thus, the treatment of snoring is provided.

If you wake up in the middle of the night panting and feel like you've been left stuffy. If you've been feeling tired for a long time. If your partner says that you snore loudly every night and that your breathing stops during your sleep, you can contact a health care provider and ask to be evaluated for sleep apnea.

In the treatment of severe sleep apnea positive air pressure (CPAP) therapy should be administered. The patient should be monitored by adjusting the automatic settings according to the treatment effect and the patient's preference or by switching to a fixed pressure device. In cases that have difficulty using CPAP device or in mild cases, the lower jaw with the intra-oral apparatus may be put forward and the tongue may fall backwards and obstruct the upper respiratory tract.

 The original treatment of sleep apnea, a device that delivers continuous air pressure into the airway to keep it open with the use of is provided. Pap (positive airway pressure) devices for sleep apnea by keeping the upper airway open during sleep and prevents. These devices, which provide compressed air with a silicone mask that sits firmly on the face during the night, may initially seem uncomfortable for the patient. However, patients who wake up rested and sleepy in the morning can easily accept the device. A second night of sleep is needed to determine which device is suitable for the patient and to see if the apnea is absent or reduced to a minimum number.  The quality of the patients increases again after sleep apnea treatment with the device.

How Is Sleep Apnea Prevented?

Sleep apnea can be prevented by simple considerations. The most important of the modifiable risk factors for the disease is obesity. Sleep apnea can be reduced by 50% by losing weight. In addition, avoiding alcohol and sleeping pills, quitting smoking and not lying on your back also reduces discomfort. Reduce snoring and nasal sprays or elastic bands which provides the aperture for the treatment of sleep apnea may not be sufficient.

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Monday, August 10, 2020

HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) Infection in Men - Symptoms, Daignosis and Treatment

HPV Infection in Men

HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) Infection in Men - Symptoms, Daignosis and Treatment

Genital warts within the scope of sexually transmitted warts HPV virus (Human papilloma virus) as a result of infection in both women and men developed as a result of the appearance of cauliflower, sometimes in a single region, a few decorated areas, sometimes as small as a head 1-2, sometimes a large number, sometimes 3-4 diameter can reach painless, partially hard masses. HPV infection is increasingly common in our country. It creates serious health problems in both men and women.

HPV (human papiloma virus) infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection. More than half of men and women who are sexually active become infected with this virus at some time in their lives. In the United States alone, 14 million new cases of HPV infection occur each year. This is because the virus usually manifests itself in women, there is a false belief that men are not infected or just carriers of this infection. In this article, you can find the results, symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of HPV infections in men.

What is HPV?

"Human papillorna virus" is a type of virus that causes the formation of wart-shaped masses called condyloma(condyloma acuminatum), which causes infection in both male and female genital areas and mucosa of this region.Once HPV enters the body, it settles into cells and leads to periodic recurring infections.Although the HPV virus and its associated genital warts infection are a group of sexually transmitted diseases, it is known that they can be transmitted outside of sexual intercourse very rarely.

How is HPV transmitted?

The virus is transmitted through the skin and mucous membranes of the person's infected region, such as the penis or the female external genitalia, to the genitals of the individual or to areas such as the breech of the mouth.

HPV virus Infection in Men

The HPV virus, which causes cervical cancer, is also known to cause penis cancer in men.It is important to remember that men are usually carriers and therefore protection is just as important as women.Genital warts also pose significant risks for male patients and should be treated immediately if detected.

How does the HPV virus cause symptoms in men?

HPV incubation period after exposure is variable according to the type of incubation between 2 months and 6 years following, in the genital area in women or men, anusde the mouth, varying sizes and numbers of warts (genital warts, condyloma lesions) creates. In other words, some people receive the virus 2 months after the wart can be removed in some people this virus does not give any brlirti for years, for example 5 years after the genital wart may appear as. Oral sex can be transmitted to the mouth, as well as to the neighborhood or anal sex around the anus or into the condyloma genital wart lozions can be. It does not provide full protection in HPV.For this reason, warts may appear not only in the penis but also in the entire genital area.In fact, these warts can spread to the abdomen, groin and breech. In short, sexually transmitted diseases that protect the condom, HPV can not be a full protective.

According to studies by the American Cancer Society (ACS), approximately 2,120 people are diagnosed with penis cancer annually in the United States, and approximately 2,950 men are diagnosed with anal/breech cancer.

The risk of Anal cancer is about 17 times higher in gay and bisexual men than in men who have sex with women alone. Men with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) are also at higher risk of getting this cancer.

In Western societies, in both men and women, more than half of head and neck cancers are associated with HPV (especially tongue Root and tonsil cancers).

There are more than 50 types of HPV. About 30 of them are associated with genital infections. These species can be low or high risk. There may not be any indication of the species being at low risk. High - risk ones can cause cellular changes in the penis and anus and penile, anal and oral (head and neck) cancers.

In most men with HPV, the infection does not lead to any complaints, so people do not realize they have the infection.

If you have an infection that does not pass, you may also have genital warts with the risk of cancer in the following areas:
  • penis
  • scrotum
  • anus

Also polyps (e.g. laryngeal papillomas) in the mouth and throat region)

If you notice abnormal skin changes in these areas, see your doctor for further evaluation.

What increases the risk of transmission of HPV in men?

Polygamy is one of the reasons that facilitates the transmission of HPV.Starting sex at an early age and having an unsafe sexual relationship is one of the causes of cancer related to this type of HPV virus. The diagnosis of Genital warts can easily be made by an experienced physician with the eye.It is also possible to diagnose suspected warts and/or by taking a biopsy or swab to make a typification.

HPV is transmitted in both men and women through vaginal, anal, oral intercourse or contact between partners. Most people won't be aware that their partner carries this infection because they don't always have a symptom. Men have less incidence than women.

HPV can be transmitted to any man who has had sex with people who carry the virus, but the following conditions increase the risk of transmission and HPV-related diseases.
  • uncircumcised men
  • men with weak immune systems due to HIV or organ transplants
  • men who have homosexual intercourse

What areas of HPV can cause cancer in men?

When HPV, which can cause penis cancer in men, is located around the anus, cancer can be found in the rectum, which is the last part of the anus and large intestine.In addition, HPV, especially through oral sex in men, adenoids, tonsils, tongue, larynx cancer, and in some cases can cause cancer of the esophagus.

How is HPV diagnosed in men?

Currently, there is no recommended test to detect HPV in men (in women, HPV-DNA is looked at in the sample taken with Pap-smear).

It is important to tell your doctor if there are signs or symptoms associated with HPV; such as any abnormal skin growth or changes in your penis, scrotal, anal or throat area. These may be early signs of cancer. For gay and bisexual men who have a high risk of anal cancer caused by HPV, anal Pap tests can be administered. In an Anal Pap test, the doctor collects the cells in the anus and then has them checked in the lab for abnormalities.

The diagnosis of genital warts in men is made by visually checking the genital area. Some doctors may apply a solution to help identify warts that cannot be seen. But the test is not conclusive. Sometimes normal skin is mistakenly described as a wart.

How is HPV virus infections treated in men?

There is currently no cure for HPV. Warts caused by HPV can be treated with dermatological approaches; polyps in the head and neck area can be treated with interferon, anti-viral drugs and surgical approaches. HPV-related cancers have a high chance of treatment, especially when diagnosed early. Early intervention is important, so you should see a doctor immediately if you are experiencing HPV-related signs and symptoms.

The best method for treating condyloma in men is cauterization.In men, cauterization is performed in order of options for condyloma treatment and evaporation is performed according to the doctor's option with laser.In addition to burning genital warts, there is an option to freeze, surgically remove and treat small warts by applying special creams.In men, the cauterization method is the most permanent method among the options of HPV treatment.

How can you reduce your risk of HPV?

One of the best ways to protect yourself against HPV is the HPV vaccine. Although you are advised to be vaccinated until age 12, you can still be vaccinated until age 26.

- HPV vaccine guidelines renewed! What is the HPV vaccine?

In older age, you can protect yourself as follows:
  • Limiting the number of sexual partners, being monogamous
  • Using condoms accurately and consistently
  • Avoid sexual contact with a partner if you have genital warts

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Sunday, August 9, 2020

Quality Sleep Is Very Important For Our Health!

Healthy Sleep Affects Our Senses and Concentration!

But unfortunately in the Western world and in our country, our habits can prevent natural sleep patterns.

People are now sleeping less than before, and the quality of sleep is also lower. The damage of sleepless is not just counting ...

The biological clock regulates metabolic processes, such as when hormones in the human body are secreted. According to researchers from the University of Washington, the biological clocks of people who are unable to maintain night's rest and sleep patterns are deteriorating.

There are many studies that the hormone Melatonin strengthens the immune system. If there is something wrong with the immune system, or if there are pests coming from outside, it will clear them. One of the features of the hormone Melatonin is that it adjusts the body's biological clock and rhythm. And to do the task of the hormone melatonin, healthy and quality sleep is essential.

Scientists say that we replenish the energy we spend daily through the night, which is essential for the body to stay healthy. In fact, it was revealed that many genes within the brain only activate during sleep, and these genes are associated with renewal and metabolic pathways.

Many of us complain about not being able to sleep at night, often waking up, or not being able to wake up despite the alarms set up many times in the morning. No one who yawns at work, sleeps at school, or even closes their eyes during an important meeting or conference.

According to a study conducted in the United States, one in five people have sleep problems and this affects people's daily lives negatively. 

Adult humans have an average of 7-8 hours of sleep. However, the duration of sleep can vary from person to person. In individuals who suffer from chronic insomnia, and accordingly a problem is identified a treatment in lying on the floor must be planned. According to the type of insomnia, first daily living arrangements should be applied and then drug treatments such as melatonin supplements should be preferred.

Why are we waking up so hard?

Let's try to get the problem right before we focus on the problem. Why do we have trouble waking up in the morning? Why do we feel sleepy and tired all day? What does it mean to fall asleep as soon as you go to bed at night? What causes sleep disorder? With the answers to these questions, we will examine the problem you have with sleep.

In order to be more active during the day, the duration of the night's sleep is important. In fact, while the duration varies from person to person, experts recommend 7-9 hours of night sleep on average.

So if you sleep less than 7 hours and don't feel sleepy during the day, the amount of time you sleep is ideal for you.

The idea that' the more we sleep, the less we get sleepless ' is absolutely wrong.

Even after 9 hours of sleep, you may feel tired and sleepless. Which means you're not sleeping well. Sleep apnea is the most common type of sleep apnea.

Sleep is the period when the body and brain close their doors to rest. But many physiological tasks actually accelerate sleep. Some of the vital tasks needed to keep the person healthy and to maintain his or her life in the best way can only be performed during sleep.

Sleep is when our conscious mind delivers the world to our 5 senses and meets our subconscious mind. Our subconscious responds to the program set for him. The period in which we receive instructions on how to develop the 2/3 part of our lives is 1/3 of our sleep period. In other words, this corresponds to about 30 years in a person who lives 90 years. Sleep is as important to us as nutrition, but we get little sleep. There's a life that doesn't stop for 24 hours working at night. Constant fun, other activities interrupt our sleep. Sleep is the period when the body and brain close their doors to rest. But many physiological tasks actually accelerate sleep. Some of the vital tasks needed to keep the person healthy and to maintain his or her life in the best way can only be performed during sleep.

What are the characteristics of our sleep?

Sleep consists of 4 stages. During slow sleep, which is what we call the deepest of these stages, information is encoded into temporary memory in the anterior part of the hippocampus. The REM period is associated with transactional memory. If so, it would be the ideal choice to go to sleep after 3 hours after memorizing all mathematical formulas, or to sleep after 1 hour to interpret what you are reading is the ideal choice.

After a healthy night's sleep, your body and mind will be ordered a great buffet sleep 2 on the menu. there's period, deep period and REM. The brain and body functions in sleep are still active and each sleep phase contains a specific brain wave. During the slow phase of sleep, which we call nonrem, the heart and breathing rate slows down and the muscles relax. REM veresi is the first 90 of sleep. it starts at the minute, even though the eyes are closed, the body is mobile, breathing, heart rate functions are irregular, dreams happen. The muscles of the arms and legs are loosely paralyzed.

Man meets the need for nonREM first in his sleep. REMJ periods increase as sleep gets longer. In fact, the newborn spends at least half of its sleep in REM. As you age, the time becomes shorter. REM sleep is very active in the function of mathematical learning and forming memories.

Electromagnetic fields around the pituitary gland damage melatonin and serotonin release disrupts.

Sleeping too hot reduces the release of the hormone melatonin. Its ideal is 21-23 degrees.

Some of the causes of sleepless are very important! 

If you feel tired and sleepless during the day, you should first determine the cause of this condition. Is the problem inadequate sleep time, poor quality sleep or another reason? You should look closely at your sleep to understand the cause of your sleep.

You may think that by sleeping more when you're not going to work or school, you can get the sleep you crave during the week.

But even on weekends, your sleep time and hours of not sleeping should be the same. If you sleep at the same time and still have trouble waking up in the morning, you may not be able to find the ideal time to sleep.

Another important point is to sleep as soon as you put your head on the pillow.

Heart diseases, obesity and diabetes have been linked to sleep disorders.

If you are chronically suffering from these diseases and on top of that, you are in the risk group if you are experiencing sleep disorders.

Sleep apnea can sometimes be overlooked!

Sleep apnea, which is a syndrome characterized by stopping breathing during sleep and associated repetitive hypoxic attacks, can be overlooked in some patients.

Symptoms of sleep apnea can be sorted as the below:
  •       Sleep apnea is the most common type of sleep apnea.)
  •       Anyone else that witnessed episodes of sleep apnea
  •       Abrupt awakenings from sleep (a sleep study would be to have more)
  •       Dry mouth or sore throat when you wake up in the morning
  •       Insomnia withdrawal
  •       Dry mouth and sore throat in the morning
  •       Morning headaches
  •       Depressed mood
  •       Irritability
  •       Attention problems

If you have sleep apnea, your doctor may recommend a sleep apnea treatment. Because in their daily lives, people with sleep apnea headaches, forgetfulness, lack of concentration, or problems such as insomnia can be seen.  So both in the name of catching a high quality sleep at night difficulty in daily life and avoid the issue of sleep apnea you can get on the agenda.

How do we fall asleep?

During Vigilance, our cells consume our energy resources. These sources are turning into products such as adenosine. As adenosine increases, so does our desire to sleep. It's called sleep suppression. In fact, the caffeine we drink shuts down the pathways of adenosine buyers. Other waste also accumulates in the brain. If these wastes aren't destroyed, they're an extra burden on our brains. And they lead to negative symptoms of insomnia. When awake, the substance called adenosine accumulates in the blood and triggers sleep. It is the substance of adenosine that follows this condition that the body has to complete the incomplete sleep in a way that your body cannot sleep less than it needs. Adenosine breaks down when you sleep.

Another ingredient is melatonin. It provides natural sleep at night. Part of your inner biological clock controls these biological clock cells, as do light signals from inner and outer environmental stimuli. Melatonin can also increase between 13-16 in the day and bring sleep in addition to the night. Melatonin is made from htriptophand. Its synthesis and release shows a circadian rhythm. It increases in darkness, it suppresses in light. Protects the biological clock, adjusts the rhythm, adjusts the sleep rhythm and body temperature. It is antiinflammatory and anticancer. It is the most powerful antioxidant with lipophilic property. Reduces LDL cholesterol. It plays a role in energy metabolism. Melatonin deficiency due to sleep reduction in aging and night workers induces insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, leading to obesity.

Ideal sleep time by age

Sleep duration varies throughout the entire life cycle. Newborns sleep 16-18 hours, pre-schoolers sleep 11”-12 hours, school age and adolescents should sleep at least 10 hours. But hormonal changes often affect the young's biological clocks. The teenager, who has to sleep 9-10 hours a night, gets into bed late and wants to be late in the morning. But school starts early in the morning, so she only sleeps 6-7 hours. Sleep patterns change as you age. In contrast to the older teens, they go to bed early and wake up early and sleep lessens. How well you sleep depends not only on your sleep time, but also on how well you sleep. In Stage 4 of sleep we call Stage 2 Middle sleep 50%, REM period 20%, deep sleep 20% occurs at a rate such as. Generally, 1-1.5 hours after falling asleep, the first REM sleep is passed. After that, the stages continue to follow each other throughout your sleep. As sleep progresses, the time you spend in REM will be extended while the time you spend in deep sleep will be shortened. In REM, dreams work to store and organize new information acquired while the brain is awake.

What's waiting for us if we can't sleep?

An efficient sleep helps you start the day in the morning with positive energy while reducing stress, improving vitality, physical and mental performance. So, the path to a healthy life begins with understanding the importance of quality sleep. Some simple steps to take can help you mitigate the effects of sleep disorders such as sleep syndrome and improve your quality of life.

Sleep deprivation is the time you snack on to be busy. If you don't sleep, your metabolism drops the next day. Energy is stored as oil that cannot burn. The digestive system, for example, we think we're eating something before we go to bed, which only makes us sleepy. We get up tired in the morning.

Sleep problem in adolescents is a much more serious problem 9 hours of sleep should be 5 hours, but sleeping. Learning disabilities, memory problems, mental problems, chronic diseases HT, DM, obesity are starting. Sleeping less than 6 hours a day increases the risk of stroke and heart attack by 4 times compared to normal people. Insomnia stresses your body more adrenaline leads to the release of cortisol and other stress hormones. These hormones prevent your blood pressure from dropping during sleep and increase your risk of heart disease.  Insomnia also plays a role in the release of certain proteins that have a role in heart disease. For example, CRP levels increase in people who do not get enough sleep. High CRP causes atherosclerosis and hardening of the arteries.  If you sleep less than 1 hour, you won't feel sleepless, but even that affects your clear thinking, your quick response. Children who do not sleep well at night become more hyperactive iritability and careless during the day.

Recommendations for a quality sleep

1. First of all, the bedroom should be preferred for sleeping. Short naps that are thought to be enjoyable in front of the television can disrupt the night's sleep.

2. The Ideal room temperature should be provided at 21-22 degrees.

3. Electronic items such as televisions, cell phones, computers should not be found in the bedroom. 

4. Attention should be paid to the light and sound insulation of the bedroom.

5. There should be no light in the bedroom. “Melatonin " secreted in sleep is activated only in the dark. This uptake is also very important for the balance of “seratonin” released when we see light during the day.

6. Preparations such as brushing teeth or needing a toilet before going to bed for sleep should be finished.

7. No food should be consumed 2 hours before bed. It is especially important to avoid stimulants such as tea and coffee. Other foods and drinks that are consumed to bring about sleep can trigger reflux.

8. Sports should be performed at least 3 days a week. It may be beneficial for people with insomnia to do evening sports. 

9. Be careful to sleep at the same time, including the weekend, and get up at the same time.

10. If you cannot sleep for half an hour and 45 minutes, you should get out of bed. Reading a book in a different room and lying down again gives positive results.

Don't choose too hard or too soft beds!

A good night's sleep can be due to many different factors, such as bed comfort, stress level or room temperature. So for a restful and comfortable sleep, start with the first step and choose the right bed for yourself. Make sure the bed fully supports your body. Your bed needs to align well with your back and joints, have pressure points and support against pain. For this reason, you should avoid using a very hard or very soft bed. When the bed is too hard it creates resistance to the main points of the body and can upset the natural balance. In a very soft bed, the pressure points may not be fully supported.

It's important to avoid harmful habits! 

To sleep comfortably, be careful not to consume stimulants such as alcohol, nicotine and caffeine. The effects of caffeine can last for several hours, maybe even up to 24 hours, and disrupt your sleep patterns. Caffeine not only causes sleep and relaxation difficulties, it can also cause you to wake up frequently during the night. Alcohol, on the other hand, can have a sedative effect for the first few hours after consumption. However, you may then be left alone with frequent arousals and a night's sleep that does not rest.


Thursday, August 6, 2020

Bee Stings and Allergy

Bee Allergy, Symptoms and Treatment

Bee Stings and Allergy

What are the symptoms of bee stings? How is a bee sting allergy detected?

Every year in the United States, 50 people die from allergies caused by insect bites. One in every 10 adults in Turkey is allergic to insect bites. The most dangerous and lethal of the insects are the bees. Insects can sting or bite people with their needles. However, insect stings caused by bees are most common in daily life. Bees are membrane-winged insects that can sting humans with their needles. There are very few people in the community who have not been stung by a bee during their lifetime. But very few people are likely to end up dead. Biting insects such as mosquitoes, ticks, spiders, ants, bedbugs and fleas rarely cause a systemic allergic response.

Bees have venom sacs, and some people may develop allergies to bee venom called “venom”. Some people may have allergies as a result of repeated bee stings. If a large number of bees sting at the same time, then a toxic reaction can occur. This condition is similar to allergy symptoms, but tests can not detect allergic sensitivity.

In Turkey, there are Apis mellifera, most commonly known as honeybee, and Vespula vulgaris, also known as wasp or yellow bee.

Which of the insects is the most dangerous and lethal species?

With the start of the summer months, insect stings increase, especially bee stings. Although bee stings are not generally considered, they pose a serious danger to people with allergies. Yellow wild bees, honey bees and large bee stings are more common in the summer months. Large bees are more dangerous than smaller yellow wild bees. Ants can also stick with its jaw and sting from several places along with its circular movements around its head. Pustules develop where it stings. Ants are also known to increasingly threaten health in recent years.

What are the symptoms of bee allergy?

Bee stings can be encountered frequently, especially in the summer months. The symptoms of a bee allergy after a bee sting are very important in terms of early detection of the allergy. Bee stings can have minor itches. These usually disappear within 24 hours. Sometimes redness and swelling may occur within 2 days. These disappear for between 2 and 7 days. The symptoms of bee allergies may include hives, angioedema, and anaphylaxis. These reactions can even lead to death. The symptoms of bee allergy may be present immediately or after 1-2 hours. Edema in the throat, hoarseness, shortness of breath, circulation disorders may occur with shock. Death events due to bee allergy are generally more common in men over the age of 50.

Bee allergy can cause allergic shock!

The venoms of bees cause allergies. There are allergens that can cause cross-reaction between Wasps species. People who develop allergies to the poisons of bees develop symptoms of bee allergies with bee stings. Type 1 allergic reaction is developing.

Symptoms gradually increase within 24-48 hours after a bee stings. It can go on for 7 days. Sometimes after 72 hours, symptoms may appear.

It can sometimes cause symptoms such as swelling, tiredness, vomiting, and mild redness where the bee stings. The presence of swelling after a bee sting is an indication that allergic reactions (anaphylaxis) leading to severe shocks that threaten life will not be seen. The incidence of developing anaphylaxis in these people is 3-5%.

In the reactions that occur immediately after a bee sting, there may be slight swelling in the stings or there may be too much. Toxic reactions and severe allergic shock may develop.

Serum disease, Gullen-Barre syndrome, glomerulonephritis, myocarditis and vasculitis may occur days or months after a bee sting, although rare.

Swelling where the bee stings is the most common symptom. However, this swelling does not happen due to allergies. It is the Venoma-bound reaction.

It can sometimes be greater than 8-10 cm in diameter after a bee sting. Only three out of a hundred people after a bee sting happen. Swelling size can increase up to 48 hours. It could take 10 days to recover. Sometimes there may be swelling in the entire arm or leg. If the reaction is severe, fatigue and nausea may occur.

Bee Stings

What is serum sickness?

Sometimes immunologically the disease is called serum disease. 7 days after a bee sting in this disease joint pain and hives we call skin itchy allergic disease is seen. The vaccine should also be given to those who have Serum disease.

Toxic reaction

It develops if it stings more than fifty bees at once. Many bees enter the body as a result of the poison of the Bee's substances in the headache, nausea, vomiting, fever, remittance, blood pressure drop, heart I failure, shock and death can be seen. This toxic reaction has nothing to do with allergies. Allergies can also develop after a toxic reaction. Therefore, people who develop toxic reactions should be tested against bees. If the skin test is positive, there is a risk of developing allergic shock in subsequent bee stings.

Serious reactions

Severe reactions after bee stings are reactions due to Type 1 allergies.

Itching, redness, hives, and angioedema may develop as a type 1 allergic reaction. If you develop itching, redness, hives, and angioedema in a place other than where the Bee is stung, it can be considered as a precursor to allergic shock. People who develop itching, redness and hives are therefore at risk of allergic shock in subsequent bee stings.

Allergic shock due to bee stings usually occurs within the first 30 minutes, sometimes within 1 hour. Very rarely, it can be delayed up to 72 hours.

Children who develop allergic shock should be treated urgently

How is bee allergy diagnosed?

First, whether it is a bee sting should be questioned. If a bee is found to be stinging, the type of bee must be found out. If there's a needle in the stings, it's the honeybee. Bee pictures can also help in identifying the species of the Bee. The most important point in bee stings begins with the determination of the size of the developing reaction. Reactions should be evaluated whether they suggest allergy. Is there just swelling in the area where the Bee was stung, or is there a rash with itchy rash, or is there an itchy rash outside the area where the Bee was stung? symptoms such as low blood pressure, increased heart rate, weakness, nausea, abdominal pain, shortness of breath are questioned. The size of the reaction is greater than 8-10 cm. Blood allergy to bee venom and skin allergy testing is recommended. Skin testing is performed as a skin prick and intradermally.

Diagnosis with a bee allergy test!

In the diagnosis of bee allergy, questioning the patient, skin tests and laboratory blood tests are important. The patient should be questioned very well, the time of past bee stings, what characteristics they carry, how the reaction is monitored and what complaints occur with them should be investigated. After a bee allergy occurs, panic, fear, excessive heat, excessive exercise and alcohol intake can increase the allergic reaction. Skin tests with bee venom help in diagnosis. Skin tests should be evaluated together with a history of the disease.

Bee allergy is an unpredictable condition 

When a bee stings a person, there may be only temporary mild pain where it stings, burning, itching and redness along with a small swelling. This is a normal reaction and usually heals without treatment. In some people, the swelling in the area stung by the bee may grow. In very few people, the symptoms appear immediately (within 30 minutes) in the parts of the body far from where they are put. In this case, we call” allergic shock " table shortness of breath, wheezing, palpitations, fainting, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, itching and redness all over the body, face and tongue, skin swelling may occur. Life-threatening symptoms include swelling of the tongue in the throat, hoarseness and blood pressure. One or more of these symptoms can be found together. This may indicate a systemic, general allergic reaction, and may rarely result in death.

People at risk for bee allergy

Some at-risk individuals may experience more severe bee allergy symptoms. These include older individuals, patients with heart disease and hypertension, patients with mastocytosis who use certain blood pressure and heart medications.

How is bee stings treated?

Cold compresses should be done for swelling seen immediately after a bee sting. Painkillers can be given. Resolves in a few hours.

If the swelling is too large, cold compresses, high extremities, pain medications, antihistamminics in the mouth, and sometimes corticosteroids are used. In people with such a large swelling, the risk of developing allergic shock is 5-10% if the bee stings more sonar again. If there is such a large swelling, a child allergy specialist should evaluate the child.

Antihistamines and corticosteroids may be given if you develop itching, redness, hives, and angioedema, and only if there are signs of skin and blood pressure changes. Children who develop reactions in this way may develop allergic shock after a bee sting again, so it is useful to have an adrenaline auto-injector next to the child.

If symptoms of allergic shock develop, epinephrine auto-injector should be used immediately. For this, you should read our article on the use of epinephrine autoinjector in the allergic shock section and watch our video.

If the bee sting remains on the skin, it should be removed without being squeezed. Cold compress should be applied to the inserted place. If the insertion site is an arm or leg, a tourniquet should be applied to the part of the insertion site close to the body. If you have previously developed allergic shock and were stung by a bee, epinephrine should be administered before symptoms of allergic shock develop and an ambulance should be called to the nearest hospital. If it is not possible to have epinephrine auto-injector, adrenaline bulb 1 mg and injector should be kept at all times and training should be given on which dose to use. If the symptoms of allergic shock persist despite the first epinephrine, the second may be done after 5-10 minutes.

How is allergy treated in bee stings?

One of the most curious in the treatment of bee allergy is how the Bee's needle should be removed. If you want to remove the Bee Stinger, you must take care to remove the Stinger without squeezing the venom sac. For this reason, after a bee sting, a health care provider should be contacted immediately and the help of a specialist in the hospitals that perform Bee testing and treatment should be obtained. 

Patients who experience the symptoms described above as a result of bee stings should consult an allergy specialist. Allergy tests and severe reactions in people who are allergic to the responsible Bee should be treated with the vaccine lasting 3-5 years. The success of this treatment is quite high and improves the quality of life of patients. These patients should be prescribed adrenaline auto-injectors that are ready to carry them with them continuously and also to use them on their own until they go to a center in case of emergency. These patients may be advised to take precautions to protect them from bee stings, although this may be difficult. Honeybees are calmer, and after stinging it, it releases its sting and dies. Wasps, on the other hand, are more aggressive and can sting several times.  In cases affecting the risk of insect bites, outdoor activities, picnic areas, exposed food and garbage bins around, building eaves, tree troughs, underground hollows close to the soil, beehives around, eating outdoors, walking barefoot in the grass may be dangerous in this respect. The beehives should decry for a while.

Bee allergy prevention methods

Preventive treatment is very important if you want to protect yourself from bee stings. Long socks, gloves and shoes can protect you against bee stings if you work in the garden or field. Beehives found around the House must be removed or destroyed. Since wasps may come to sugary and open foods, they should be stored indoors. Bee allergy sufferers are advised not to wear bright and flowery clothes and not to use perfume. Automatic epinephrine injector (epi-fen) should be carried alongside those with bee allergies. Dangerous reactions should be injected immediately. In order to prevent bee allergies, a vaccine can be administered in hospitals that provide a bee vaccine. The bee allergy vaccine must be administered at the hospital.

What are the things to know about bee stings?

Children who develop allergic shock due to bee Soma should have epinephrine next to them. The family and child should be taught how to use the epinephrine auto-injector. It is also important that people with bee allergies wear necklaces or bracelets that indicate that they are allergic to bees. The use of blood pressure medications such as ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II resöptor blockers, MAO inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants should be avoided in people with bee allergies. Because these drugs prevent the effects of the drugs used in the treatment of allergic shock.

If the reaction due to bee stings is thought to be venom allergy, the blood and skin of the bee venom allergy test should be done. According to the results of the test, which bee allergy if there is a vaccine against the Bee treatment called immunotherapy should be done.

People who have not previously developed allergic shock have up to a 10% risk of allergic shock in the next bee sting if the skin test is positive for bee venom.

If the allergy test is positive in people who have developed allergic shock, the risk of developing allergic shock is 40-70%.

Does it recur later when allergic shock develops?

It could repeat within 24 hours. He is therefore kept under observation.

Immunotherapy treatment in bee stings 

Immunotherapy treatment against Venoma is the area where the vaccine delivers the most effective results. If there is an allergy to bees in the blood and if the skin test is positive for a bee allergy and allergic shock has developed before, vaccine treatment should be done. Immunotherapy treatment is not recommended for children who develop mild allergies. It should be done if there is serious swelling in the place where the bee stings or if there is swelling in other places where the bee stings.

Is the immunotherapy effective?

The effectiveness of the vaccine against bee allergy is very high. It is 75-100% effective.

How long will immunotherapy treatment take?

It is continued for about 5 years. The first 4 months are done once a week then once a month.


Wednesday, August 5, 2020

Viruses and Bacteria That Can Cause Cancer

Carcinogenic Viruses and Bacteria

Viruses and Bacteria That Can Cause Cancer

Radiation, ultraviolet sun rays, smoking, foods containing carcinogenic substances, air pollution, heavy metals, such as many factors can lead to cancer. It is now necessary to add some bacteria and viruses to these factors as well. Viruses that can stay in the human body for many years and cause changes in human cells can lead to cancer. However, this does not mean that viruses will necessarily cause cancer. Many people think that viruses are small creatures that cause unpleasant summer colds. But you may be surprised to learn that some viruses can cause cancer. The course of diseases caused by viruses or bacteria can be different in every person. Depending on the conditions, viruses or bacteria can cause a simple infection in some people, while cancer can occur in others.

Viruses are considered to be the simplest forms of life. They are made up of genetic material hidden in a sheath of protein. Viruses that carry on their lives like parasites do not have the ability to reproduce on their own. They enter into the cells they adhere to and use the formations inside the cell to multiply. So they turn the cells into a virus-producing factory. Viruses that reproduce, kill the cell they are in, and then flock to new cells and control those cells. Some viruses reproduce within the cell, and instead of killing the cell, they attach their genetic code to the cell's DNA to provide permanent dominance in that cell. As the cell proliferates, the genetic code of the virus also passes to new cells. For example, Herpes virus, which causes herpes in the lips, places its genetic code in nerve root cells. When the person's immune system weakens, the production of the virus begins and herpes sores appear on the lip due to it. As the immune system gets stronger, it becomes able to cope with infection and the wounds heal. The changes caused by viruses in the cell can lead to uncontrolled cell proliferation over time, which means cancer. Some viruses in particular cause certain types of cancer. Although the virus-cancer link has been known for a long time, it has taken many years to understand the links at the molecular level, and only in the last 20-30 years have the mechanisms been largely uncovered. In 1908, two scientists, Wilhelm Ellermann and Oluf Bang, mentioned the existence of a contagious virus that causes blood cancer in chickens. Later studies using electron microscopy showed that this microbe was a virus. In the following years, a researcher named Peyton Rous was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1966 as a result of his studies showing a type of virus that causes cancer in chickens.

Even if you are infected with a virus that is associated with cancer, it does not necessarily mean that you will get the disease. There are also things you can do to avoid getting the virus in any way, from vaccines to lifestyle changes. 

The Mechanism Of Viruses Causing Cancer

While viruses reproduce using the genetic structure of the cell, they can also lead to various changes in cell DNA. Changes in cell DNA happen over time. Genetic accidents caused by the virus occur years after it enters the cell. Viruses that enter and settle inside the cell cause such accidents that affect the capacity of cells to multiply. As a result of such accidents, the behavior of cells changes and normal control mechanisms can be disrupted. If the mechanisms that control cell division are disrupted, the cells can multiply uncontrollably, meaning they can become cancerous. The link between cancer and viruses has been suspected for almost 100 years, but significant molecular evidence has been obtained in the past 20 years that viruses lead to cancer. In some types of cancer, the presence of a specific virus was shown in each cancer cell. This is either the virus itself or the virus that is embedded in the cell DNA in the cancer cells.

His DNA was shown. These findings were the first evidence that viruses are linked to certain types of cancer. In addition, healthy cells that come into contact with these viruses in cell cultures have also been shown to undergo changes and begin to reproduce uncontrollably. Investigations found a genetic code of the virus stuck to the DNA in all of these cells.

Carcinogenic Bacteria and Viruses

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV)

In some cases, hepatitis C can lead to a liver infection that can lead to liver cancer. These viruses can infect you when you use the same needle as others to inject drugs, have unprotected sex, or have contaminated blood transfusions. Hepatitis viruses, especially hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) as the name implies, are the cause of hepatitis. They can cause jaundice by causing an infection in the liver. They can cause acute or chronic hepatitis. Acute infection, that is, hepatitis, which starts abruptly and causes jaundice, is cured to a greater extent. However, chronic infections without symptoms usually remain silent for years. Some patients liver cirrhosis may develop liver cancer i.e. some failure occurs primarily directly.

Doctors can treat HBV and HCV infections with medication. After several months of treatment, usually HCV can be completely removed from the body. The drugs do not improve HBV, but they reduce the likelihood of liver damage and cancer. 

Although there is a vaccine to prevent HCV, there is no vaccine to prevent HCV. People who are at high risk of contracting HBV should be vaccinated. This includes HIV patients, those using illegal drugs or healthcare workers.

Herpes virus (KSHV) associated with Kaposi's sarcoma)

KSHV virus is a herpes virus that can cause Kaposi's sarcoma, a cancer of the blood vessels, as well as two types of lymphoma. If you have an Organ transplant, have chemotherapy, and have AIDS, your immune system (your body's defense system against germs) is weak, which increases your chances of getting cancer.

This virus can spread through sexual intercourse, and so using condoms and limiting people you have sex with can prevent transmission of the virus. It can also be spread through blood and saliva.

Merkel-cell polyomavirus (MCV)

MCV is a common virus that causes skin infection. It usually does not cause any symptoms or cause cancer. However, in some people, MCV causes a rare form of skin cancer called Merkel cell carcinoma.

One important thing to do to avoid Merkel cell carcinoma and other types of skin cancers is to use sunscreen with at least 30 SPF when you're out.

Human papilloma virus (HPV)

HPV is a group of more than 200 viruses involved, with at least twelve of them causing cancer. HPV spreads during vaginal or anal sex.

HPV usually heals spontaneously and causes no health problems. But some people live with this inflammation. It can cause cervical, vulva, vagina, penis, anus, tonsils or tongue cancers in people with cancer-causing HPV infection. Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes more genital warts. This virus also occurs quite frequently in society, such as EBV. One in two sexually active women will definitely experience HPV throughout their life. Sometimes this disease has remained asymptomatic most of the time, which causes warts on skin and mucous membranes in the genital area, but more importantly, especially infection with HPV types 16 and 18 known to cause cancer is not a symptom of any infection, but may occur as cervical cancer many years later. In the same way, this virus can be detected in cancers of the anus and penis. In addition, some types of HPV cause larynx cancers.

HPV vaccines can prevent the virus from infecting you. Health officials recommend getting these vaccines for young women from the age of 26 and young men from the age of 21. 

Type 1 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1 or HIV)

HIV is spread through unprotected sex and infected needles. An unborn baby can also be caught during pregnancy or an HIV-infected mother can transmit the virus to her baby while breastfeeding.

People with HIV have a weakened immune system and are more likely to develop cancers similar to the following:
  • Kaposi's Sarcoma
  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
  • Cervical cancer.
You can help prevent the spread of HIV by using condoms during sex and avoiding sharing needles you use to inject drugs. You can also use drugs that prevent HIV transmission, such as pre-contact prophylaxis (PrEP) and post-contact prophylaxis (PEP).

Although there is no cure, you can control HIV with treatment.

Type 1 human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1)

HTLV-1 infects T cells, a type of white blood cell. It causes leukemia and lymphoma.

HTLV-1's many propagation paths include:

  • Passing from mother to baby through childbirth or breastfeeding
  • Using the same needle with people infected with the disease
  • Transplantation
  • Having sex without using a condom
About 2 to 5 percent of people infected with the virus experience adult T-cell leukemia or other health problems. Some people have leukemia, while others do not. Symptoms and the way the disease develops vary from person to person.

HTLV-1 has no cure or cure. Lifetime borne illness. But regular health checks reduce your chances of getting cancer.

Use condoms to help prevent the spread of this virus and try to restrict the number of people you have had sex with. If you are a woman and you are infected, you should not breastfeed your child.

Epstein Barr virus (EBV)

EBV is a common virus. This virus infects most people at some point in their life. Most people infected with EBV live a healthy life and show no symptoms.

EBV actually causes the feverish disease known as ‘Kiss disease’, especially in adolescent children. This disease, which is usually benign, is cured spontaneously without treatment. 80-90 percent of the population experiences this virus at some point in their lives. However, EBV has been identified among the causes of some types of lymphoma and nasopharynx (pharynx) cancer. 

In other people, EBV can cause serious diseases ranging from mononucleosis and viral meningitis to pneumonia.

Some cancers are also associated with EBV:
  • Burkitt Lymphoma
  • Nasopharynx cancer (upper pharynx cancer)
  • Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma
  • T-cell lymphomas
  • Lymphoproliferative disease (red blood cell excess) after transplant)
  • Leiomyosarcoma (soft tissue cancer)
There is no vaccine for EBV, but you can protect yourself by avoiding kissing and sharing drinks, food and personal items with infected people.

There is no specific treatment for people with EBV, but you can relieve symptoms by drinking plenty of water, resting, and using painkillers and fever-reducing drugs.

Helicobacter Pylori (HP)

Helicobacter pylori bacteria can cause stomach and twelve finger ulcers. This disease is usually cured with a good fit of treatment and becomes chronic in some people. Stomach cancer is more common in people who have lived with Helicobacter infection for many years. For this reason, it is very useful to treat Helicobacter patients.

A bacterium in the gut raises the risk of developing cancer

A bacterium in the gut was found to increase the risk of developing bowel cancer. According to" the Guardian, " a study by scientists at the University of Bristol in England found that people with an unclassifiable type of Bacteroidales in their gut had a 2 to 15 per cent greater risk of bowel cancer than those without it.

The results were presented at the Cancer Conference of the National Institute of cancer research in Glasgow, Scotland, and the gut flora and genetic data of 4 thousand people were examined.

The study, which examined whether there was any relationship between the presence of certain gut bacteria and genetic variables, concluded that 13 genetic variables were linked to the variability of a different gut bacterium.

Then, the gut flora and genetic data of 2 thousand people were examined and the effect of genetic variability on the risk of bowel cancer was looked at.

Studies have found that those who are most likely to have Bacteroides bacteria in their gut are 2 to 15 percent more likely to have bowel cancer.

Euphusobacterium nucleatum, Bacteroides fragilis and Escherichia coli

Precautions and Measures

Hepatitis B and HPV vaccines are available and highly effective in preventing cases of cancer that can be caused by viruses and bacteria. Hepatitis B vaccine is now available to infants 1. it's done a month and completed in 3 doses. However, adults can also be vaccinated if they are not immune at any time in their lives. The HPV vaccine is ideally offered to girls (usually 12-14 years old) who have not had their first sexual experience. However, this can be done to all women under the age of 50, such as hepatitis B. Even if you have had sexual intercourse before, it is protective effect in terms of HPVs that you will encounter after that. He is also completing 3 doses, such as hepatitis B. Helicobacter does not have a vaccine, but it can be treated with antibiotics. A healthy diet, regular sleep, stress-free stay, sports, alcohol and smoking habits will strengthen people's immunity to this type of virus will make it difficult to make cancer.

Viruses Against Cancer-Virotherapy

Viruses can be used to treat cancer just as they cause the cells they attack to become cancerous. This idea originated almost a hundred years ago when some cancerous patients who were vaccinated for the viral disease observed a drop in tumor growth rates and improvement in their overall condition. In 1912, a gynecologist realized that his patient, who had uterine cancer, had a tumor decline after he was given a rabies vaccine with an attenuated virus. After this observation, it became clear that viruses, which can easily enter cells and lead to various diseases and death of cells, can be useful when the necessary changes are provided. Although it is not yet widely available in clinical use, in parallel with advances in genetic engineering, the use of viruses in cancer treatment will perhaps be a routine form of treatment in the near future. The use of viruses in cancer treatment is based on their rapid reproductive capacity within the cell and their ability to kill the cell. Viruses that do not damage Normal cells but reproduce in tumor cells can be used in treatment. When treating cancer, it is very important not to expose the person to serious viral diseases. Directing viruses to the right target, that is, cancerous cells, is one of the major problems that needs to be overcome.

You can see detailed list of viruses and bacteria that can cause cancer at >> Bacterial infections and cancer - NCBI