Smear test and gynecological examination: Annual gynecological examination for every woman who has intercourse after the age of 18. It should be determined and treated for gynecological examination and eggs (inflammation, myoma, egg cyst, congenital network problems, etc.). In gynecological examination, the formal evaluation of the uterus and eggs, as well as the tubes, with ultrasonography is important.
A little cell smear test should be done from the cervix with a special apparatus for gynecological examination. It is also important to diagnose cancer disease that may occur in the current or future years with a smear test. Vaginal smear should be done especially in cases of cervical wounds and chronic cervical inflammation. Annual repetition of a vaginal smear is very important.
The smear test is a painless and painless test to detect infections in the cervix, including cervical cancer, and cellular writings that lead to cancer. As in cervical cancer, it leads to the detection of smear test at the planned early stage for the early diagnosis of endometrial cancer, known as uterine lining cancer. Female cancers can almost be diagnosed early with regular gynecological examinations. Early diagnosis is the golden rule for recovery in a short time.
How is Smear Test Done?
For the smear test, a tissue sample in the form of a swab is taken from the area called the cervix with a special cotton swab. Smear test, which takes 5-10 seconds, is painless and painless.
The cervix, or cervix, is the part of the uterus that remains in the vagina and is expanded and made visible with the help of a speculum during gynecological examination. It is possible to take tissue samples easily during the examination and the patient does not feel any pain or pain while removing the tissue swab.
When to Start Smear Test?
The question of when to start a smear test is one of the most curious issues of young women. The age to start smear test should be 21 years and older. In addition, if the woman's age is under the age of 21 and she has had her first sexual intercourse, it is recommended to test 3 years after the intercourse.
If the smear is done once a year in women younger than 30, it is sufficient, but if the woman is older than 30 and the smear result is negative 3 times in a row, it is recommended to repeat the test in 2-3 years.
The group that should give importance to the smear test should have more frequent smear screening in HIV-positive women, those whose immune system is not healthy enough, those who use estrogen for any reason, those who have had organ transplantation, that is, those who have undergone organ transplantation, or who have received chemotherapy and cortisone treatment before.
What is the Importance of Smear Test?
Cells in the cervix can cause atypical changes over time. These changes and disorders in cells are called cellular dysplasia, in other words, cancer precursor cells. Cellular changes do not occur in a short time. Therefore, early diagnosis of cellular anomalies is very easy.
The purpose of the smear test is to recognize these cells before they turn into cancer and to perform the treatment as soon as possible.
While cervical cells progress in their normal course, they may undergo metamorphosis due to some genetic, environmental reasons or diseases. The most important reason why cervical cells cannot perform their natural cycle and become cancer precursor cells is Human Papilloma Virus, HPV.
HPV, also known as genital warts, causes warts in the genital area. Warts cause lesions, persistent infections and dysplasia in the cervical cells over time, that is, the cells become cancer precursor cells.
The most common way of transmission of HPV is sexual contact. In our country, there has been an increase in genital warts and cervical cancer precursor lesions in recent years.
Thanks to the benefits of the smear test, the woman can get rid of the cells that have undergone changes and often do not need cancer treatment such as radiotherapy and radiotherapy. After the necessary treatment is applied, the woman regains her health and can have children if she wishes.
What are the Causes of Cervical Cancer?
There are multiple reasons why the results of the smear test result in cell dysplasia. Among these reasons;
- Sexual life started at an early age,
- Having been with more than one sexual partner or an ongoing polygamous sex life,
- Having infectious diseases such as gonorrhea, syphilis, herpes virus
- Having genital warts or warts
- Lack or no genital care
- Causes such as smoking are the most common causes of dysplasia in the cervical cells.
What Do Smear Test Results Mean?
Smear test result does not give the same result for everyone. The size of the cell change, the severity and stage of the disease are indicated as a result of the smear test.
While reporting the results of the Pap smear test, the system called Bethesta is used.
Absence of any abnormal, precancerous or dysplasia cells in the Pap test. The report often includes the phrase negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy.
The cells obtained while taking the smear are examined by the pathologist. If he sees or suspects cancer precursor cells in one or two areas during the examination, he declares that he is not sure about the result and reports the result as ASCUS. The diagnosis of ASCUS is not a definitive result and according to the result, it cannot be said that there is a cellular disorder or not. For a woman who is given an ASCUS report, 1 year is not waited for the next smear, and the test is repeated after 2-3 months.
In patients diagnosed with ASCUS, the cervix can be examined in detail with the help of a magnifying glass called colposcopy instead of waiting for 2-3 months and performing smear scanning all over again. If a risky or suspicious finding is encountered during colposcopy evaluation, the physician performs a cervical biopsy during the examination and the tissue taken is sent to the pathology laboratory for examination.
However, a Human Papilloma Virus Typing Test may be required for patients whose smear result is ASCUS. According to the results of the HPV screening test, HPV vaccine can be applied or the mouth of the patient's uterus can be investigated in detail by colposcopy.
However, your physician may also recommend that you wait 2-3 months according to the report result. This is also an approach style and the disease does not progress during this period.
When examining the smear test, it means that the specialist physician encountered cellular disorders in some areas on the tissue. However, detected cellular disorders do not mean that the patient has cervical cancer. Approximately 90% of the cases diagnosed with LSIL according to the smear result recover spontaneously. Recovery is related to the immune system of the woman.
In women with a good immune system, the lesions heal spontaneously and without any intervention, the patient regains his former health. However, if the immune system is not strong in this process, the lesions may progress. This means the progression of the disease in 10% and the 3rd stage disease stage called HSIL. If a lesion is detected, every woman should come for regular check-ups, regardless of whether her immune system is strong or not.
In patients diagnosed with LSIL, the cervix is examined in detail using a colposcopy device. The physician takes fine tissue samples from the suspicious areas and this procedure is called cervical biopsy. Although the process of removing a piece from the cervix is a little painful and painful, it does not reach the size that requires anesthesia. After removing a piece from the cervix, bleeding can be seen and this bleeding is a bleeding that can pass by itself.
For women who write HSIL in the smear result report, the physician necessarily performs colposcopy and takes tissue samples for pathology examination from places he deems necessary. The result from the biopsy report provides a definitive diagnosis and the treatment method is determined according to this report.