Ovarian cyst surgery is generally a surgical operation performed with surgical removal of the ovarian cyst and preservation of the ovary. Ovarian cysts are formations that are common in women of reproductive age and develop in the tissue of the ovary. It can sometimes be seen in later ages, but there is a risk that the cysts seen in this period may develop due to ovarian cancer. Therefore, cysts removed by surgical intervention need to be sent to pathological diagnosis.
Ovarian cysts are formations filled with fluid, a gel-like substance or blood. We can state that most of these cysts occur due to hormonal reasons. These formations, which can also be called "ovulation cysts", can cause ovulation pain in the middle of two menstrual cycles. Their sizes range from 20 mm to 30 mm, but we can say that cyst sizes can even reach 4 cm to 5 cm in some women.
Cysts that grow to this size can cause complaints such as severe abdominal or groin pain. The cysts in question can be easily observed with ultrasound imaging performed during the ovulation period of women. Therefore, as it is possible to determine whether the cyst is physiological, tumoral, chocolate cyst or malignant cyst with ultrasound imaging, it is possible to plan ovarian cyst surgery.
When Does Ovarian Cyst Require Surgery?
The diagnosis of ovarian cyst after the examinations and tests performed does not mean that the patient should have an ovarian cyst surgery immediately. Ovarian cysts may also occur during the menstrual cycle due to the inability of ovulation function. These cyst formations can disappear spontaneously after a few menstrual cycles. For this reason, except for some specific cases, it is necessary to wait for a while to determine whether the cyst will disappear after the diagnosis. If the cyst formation does not disappear on its own, then a surgical operation is performed.
Although rare, we can say that ovarian cysts can cause serious trouble in women's daily life. In such cases, surgery can be planned in order to relax the patient. Cyst formation can be observed as the first sign of ovarian cancer. In such cases, the cyst must be evacuated from the body by surgical operation and sent for pathological examination. Therefore, doubting that cyst formation is not benign may be sufficient for the decision of surgery.
Dr. Ismet Yildirim says ...
Ovarian cyst is a fearful dream of women, when diagnosed, it causes stress, especially in many women. Most of the cysts occur due to hormonal reasons and usually resolve spontaneously, but some cysts may require surgical operation.
Before the cyst operation, it is necessary to determine the type of the cyst, find out where it originates, and determine whether it is related to cancer. Especially with ultrasonography and some other imaging methods, it is very important to determine the cause of the cyst, in addition to determining the cyst type with some blood tests. While medical treatment is applied in some cysts, surgical treatment may be considered in others.
How Is Ovarian Cyst Surgery Done?
Ovarian cyst surgery performed under general anesthesia can be performed with two different techniques, open and closed. However, today we can state that the first approach is laparoscopic, ie closed technique. Cyst surgery performed with closed method is now accepted as one of the gold standards in this condition.
In the surgery, which is performed by inflating the abdominal cavity using carbon dioxide from the navel, a micro-sized optical camera displays the abdominal cavity. It is also possible to view the inguinal cavity with the camera. After the optical camera is placed, the uterus and abdominal internal organs are evaluated, especially the ovaries. The operation is started by placing trocars in the inguinal and lateral areas of the abdomen.
The cysts formed in the ovarian area after the procedure are separated from the ovaries and removed from the abdomen in the laparoscopy bag and evacuated from the body. Cysts are sent for pathological evaluation if needed. In some patients, the diagnosis of cyst is made as a preliminary diagnosis and the result of pathological evaluation is expected for the actual diagnosis. During the operation, it is not possible for the patient to feel pain or pain due to the effect of anesthesia.
We cannot say that the healing process is very difficult for patients. After a few days of rest, it is possible for patients to return to their daily life. Problems such as headache and nausea may occur only on the day of the operation. However, the reason for these is not the surgery but the anesthesia applied before the operation. Because it passes by itself after a few hours.
Laparotomy, ie open technique, is generally preferred in mandatory situations. In this method, an incision is applied to the abdomen to reach the ovaries and the cyst formation is removed and stitches are placed in the abdomen.
Thus, the operation is completed. We can say that the recovery time is a little longer in operations performed with open technique and it can make patients a little more difficult. Regardless of the technique used for ovarian cyst surgery, mild pain may occur. However, it will be possible to control the pain with the use of the medicine prescribed by the doctor.
Ovarian Cyst Symptoms
Symptoms of cysts that occur with ovaries in the uterus can be different in each patient. We can also state that the severity of symptoms also varies from patient to patient. Common symptoms are as follows:
- Irregular period
- No menstruation
- Painful menstruation
- Pain in the groin
- Pain during sexual intercourse
- Swelling in the abdominal area
- Fullness and tenderness in the breasts
- Various complaints about the urinary tract and intestinal system
- Getting fat
- Nausea and vomiting
- Increased hair growth on the body
- Inability to get pregnant
- Sudden and severe abdominal pain such as a stab
Some of these symptoms can be indicative of different health problems as well as ovarian cysts. Therefore, when symptoms occur, it is absolutely necessary to consult a gynecologist and obstetrician. Being diagnosed with cyst does not necessarily mean that you have to have ovarian cyst surgery. However, it is still necessary to determine the factors that cause the complaints and to apply the necessary treatments. Let us emphasize once again that early diagnosis is very important in all diseases.
Is Ovarian Cyst Dangerous?
It cannot be said that not every ovarian cyst is dangerous. We can state that 80% of ovarian cysts are benign. However, cyst formation can be observed as a symptom of ovarian cancer. In this case, ovarian cyst surgery should be performed in a short time. The cyst is more likely to be malignant if:
- Cysts that occur after menopause
- Having cysts in both ovaries
- Detection of the solid structure next to the fluid-filled cyst
- Cysts that are adhered to the environment and have irregular contours
- Cysts that grow very rapidly
- Cysts that cause fluid buildup in the abdomen
- How Long Does Ovarian Cyst Surgery Take?
The duration of ovarian cyst surgery performed by laparoscopic method is not the same in every patient. In general, we can say that the operation time varies between 1 hour and 2.5 hours. However, depending on the information such as the structure, size, type of the cyst and the part of the ovary, the procedure time may vary.
For example, the operation for a chocolate cyst takes longer. This is because the cyst has an adhesive structure. It should also be noted that the organs should be protected during the procedure. Therefore, when the cysts that are large enough to put pressure on the organs need to be removed, the operation time may be prolonged.
Is There A Death Risk In Ovarian Cyst Surgery?
All surgical operations involve some risks. There is no risk-free surgery. Therefore, ovarian cyst surgery also carries various risks such as bleeding and infection. However, it should be noted that general anesthesia applied before surgery also carries some risks.
Although the risk of death is valid for all surgeries, the possibility of occurrence also varies depending on which surgery is performed and which part of the body is intervened. The risk of death is extremely low in surgery performed to remove the ovarian cyst.