Showing posts with label Sleep. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Sleep. Show all posts

Thursday, August 13, 2020

The Melatonin - Definition, Benefits, Effects and Secretion

What is Melatonin? What Are The Benefits of Melatonin?

The Melatonin - Definition, Benefits, Effects and Secretion

Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the brain, especially at night. The release of the hormone melatonin, whose main tasks include maintaining the body's biological clock and adjusting its rhythm, begins early in the night after dark and reaches its highest level, such as 02.00-04.00. The production and release of melatonin, also known as the’ dark hormone', ends with light. Melatonin is a hormone that regulates the sleep cycle and the body's biological clock, defined as the circadian rhythm, secreted by the pineal gland or pineal gland, located in the central region of the brain and located between both hemispheres. The digestive system begins to synthesize the hormone, which is produced at low levels by the organs of the stomach and intestine as well as by the bone marrow, retina, skin and white blood cells, as well as by darkening the air. In addition to regulating sleep rhythm, Melatonin plays an important role in biological and physiological processes such as strengthening the immune system, adjusting body temperature, and cell renewal. Melatonin is the most powerful antioxidant known because it has the ability to dissolve in lipophilic or, in other words, fat-type solvents. With this feature, melatonin, which can reach all parts of the body and is secreted in an intense amount during a person's sleep in a dark environment, supports the mechanisms of maintaining the vital activities of the metabolism. Melatonin has a positive effect on sleep quality, regardless of sleep duration. Therefore, the invention of the lamp, industrialization and the effect of modern life between 23.00 and 05.00 hours of light exposure to sleep or do not sleep at all in people who are limited to the secretion of melatonin this condition leads to sleep disorders.

The most important factor affecting the synthesis and release of melatonin is light. Night Lights should be removed during sleep in order to benefit from melatonin, whose synthesis is blocked in illuminated environment.

Definition of Melatonin Hormone

Melatonin, which is secreted from the pineal gland in the brain dark at night during sleep, is a hormone that acts as a shield against cancer as well as protecting the person against various diseases. Melatonin is derived from a substance called tryptophan.

The light at the beginning or end of the dark phase suppresses the release of melatonin, even if it is of sufficient intensity for a short period of time. Melatonin production is directly related to the length of the night. The longer the night, the longer the production of the hormone melatonin. As a matter of fact, melatonin, which is produced more during the winter season when the nights are longer, decreases during the summer days when the days are longer.

To release enough melatonin, you need to sleep in dark environments. If Night Light is used, pale red light should be preferred. Taking tablets/computers before falling asleep at night can cause disruption of the release of the hormone melatonin.

During sleep in front of the television television should not be left on, enough for body health and a regular sleep pattern should be established, work in the daytime hours should be preferred in life. If there is no solution, drug treatments such as melatonin supplements should be preferred.

Melatonin "Hormone of Darkness"

The hormone melatonin, which is secreted from the pineal gland in the brain, has a serious effect on human health. Its main task is to adjust the circadian rhythm of the body. But it also has a significant share on the regulation of sleep rhythm and body temperature. All structures in the body due to lipophilic property that enables access to the most powerful antioxidant, melatonin, allows the fulfillment of several important tasks such as cell renewal and boost the immune system. The air must be dark for the release of the hormone melatonin from the brain. This condition is controlled by pinealocytes or, in other words, light-sensitive cells in the brain. So when it's light, the release of melatonin stops, and when it's dark, it starts again. That's why melatonin is also known as the hormone Dracula. Melatonin, whose release begins to increase between 21.00 and 22.00 hours in the evening, peaks by reaching its highest level between 02.00 and 04.00 hours. It decreases again between 05.00 and 07.00 hours, and after this hour interval it is drawn towards the lower bound, either basal or with a different expression. On average, a total of 30 mg in a person's body overnight. melatonin is synthesized. Thus, the level of melatonin, which is 0-20 pg/dl in the blood during daylight hours, rises to 50 to 200 pg/ml during night hours.

Approximately 85% of the hormone melatonin is secreted from the pineal gland, while the remaining 15% is released by the stomach, intestine, bone marrow, retina, skin and white blood cells. Melatonin, which is associated with the presence of many diseases from cancer to heart disease, is a must for physiological and psychological health because it is the most potent antioxidant known to cause an antidepressant effect in people. Therefore, watching television at night during the hours of melatonin secretion, spending time with cell phones, exposure to light and especially blue light are among the factors that decrease sleep quality and the body's resistance to diseases.

Sleeping in the dark doesn't just provide deep sleep. Dark environments are also essential for the secretion of melatonin. Although it varies from person to person, this hormone is most secreted between 23:00 – 05:00 hours. The basic logic is that the hormone melatonin is secreted from pineolacite cells of the pineal gland. These cells are sensitive to light and interrupt the secretion of melatonin when a light stimulus reaches the brain. This hormone is also the cause of the event called Jetlag ( a problem with the biological rhythm).

Melatonin hormone and light

For millions of years, people have been living according to latitude and seasonal conditions, adapting to an average of 12 hours of light and 12 hours of dark days.  The use of artificial light during night hours was made possible by the discovery of fire 250 thousand years ago. Going back 5 thousand years, it is seen that oil lamps are used at night. While the lighting of the streets with gas lights at night took place in the 1700s, with the invention of electricity, artificial lighting has reached its present dimensions.

Light has extensive effects on human physiology and behavior. Light can cause change in human physiology by an inappropriate timing. An example of body organizations being affected by the distortions triggered by light can be given. Indeed, light acutely affects neuroendocrine systems, while reducing melatonin production and increasing cortisone production.

The biological clock regulates the order and distribution of sleep during the day. It depends on the biological clock at which time the sleep-inducing substances or hormones that increase the hours of Stay Awake will be active. One of the most important factors guiding the biological clock is light.

The light detected by the retinal layer reaches the relevant Center in the brain, which sends stimulating messages to the centers that miss sleep or secrete sleep-inducing substances and hormones, depending on what amount of light is present during the day and night. In this context, people are more prone to sleep during the day, or although they want to sleep easily, there are slices. The person who cannot sleep during the night hours, who is very tired, can not fall asleep easily in the morning and noon hours, even though he wants to or needs to, and although he is tired, he seems talkative and energetic.  In contrast, melatonin, one of the hormones that brings sleep, is secreted more after the evening hours and makes it easier to fall asleep at night.

The Relationship Between Sleep Patterns and Melatonin

A regular and adequate sleep pattern, the habit of going to bed at the same time makes more use of the hormone melatonin.

For human health, it is important for the brain to live 4 seasons and to perform night and day at the appropriate hours of bioritme. People with sleep patterns, such as tarlak birds, who tend to get up early, start their day with an energetic, high perception of the brain, thanks to the hormones secreted together with the breakfast made with the proper nutrients after waking up early. As a matter of fact, when you go to bed early and start the day early, you have the opportunity to benefit from hormones like melatonin that the body secretes at the highest level.

How is Melatonin Secreted?

Melatonin is secreted by pineolacite cells located in the pineal gland in the brain. Light-sensitive pineolacite cells increase hormone release in a linear manner with darkening of the air. Tryptophan, expressed as the main ingredient used in the making of the hormone Melatonin, primarily converts to serotonin. Serotonin, which is secreted throughout the day and is also known as the happiness hormone, is replaced by melatonin hormone with darkening of the air. Photoreceptors, identified as photosensitive retinal cells, are thought to be linked to pinealocytes located in the brain. With the disappearance of daylight, these cells transfer information that there is a decrease in the amount of light to the pineal gland in the brain. In our country, melatonin is secreted for longer periods of time due to the longer nights during the winter months. However, this situation is directly related to the age of the person. In other words, the amount of release of the hormone melatonin decreases as the person gets older. Exposure of the human body to light is the key mechanism in the differentiation of sleep patterns. The light source stimulates nerves that extend from the retina to the hypothalamic area in the brain. After the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) region in the hypothalamus receives information about the change of light, it sends this information to the pineal gland and initiates the release of melatonin. This creates a feeling of sleep and wakefulness. As melatonin release increases, warnings to the brain are less perceived and sleep sensation occurs. High levels of melatonin continue to be present in the blood level until the end of sleep. 

What Are The Benefits of Melatonin?

There are many studies that have shown that melatonin increases life expectancy and reduces signs of aging by positively affecting the immune system and reducing stress.

Many studies have also been conducted for the relationship of the hormone melatonin, which is thought to have a positive effect on immunity, to cancer. In the light of scientific studies, it has been experimentally observed that melatonin limits growth in many types of tumors. Melatonin plays a suppressive role in experimental breast tumors. When Melatonin is given in therapeutic doses, it has the effect of directly killing tumor cells.

The increase in breast cancer risk is thought to be associated with the interruption of the hormone melatonin, which is secreted in the dark, due to light. Studies of women who work at night to decrease the secretion of melatonin at night because it's Bright, has quite a lot of developing breast cancer than women working during daylight hours. Night-time employees are at increased risk of cancer when melatonin levels are suppressed as a result of dark environments lighting up. In order to make enough use of melatonin, the time of falling asleep should not be delayed as much as possible and should be passed to sleep no later than 23.00.

There is also an association between melatonin levels and depression. Melatonin levels were low and cortisol levels were high in depression patients. A parallel can be established between the increase in Melatonin levels and the use of treatment. In fact, many depression drugs used to treat depression increase the secretion of melatonin through the brain chemicals it affects.

Melatonin, which allows the body to determine the time of sleep and wakefulness, is a hormone that begins to release with darkening of the air and peaks its release at late hours. The hormone melatonin, which directly affects the release of sunlight and artificial lights, plays an important role in strengthening the immune system. Melatonin, which also has an important effect on the regulation of the body's biorithm, is also effective on many physiological functions. Some of Melatonin's other functions are listed as follows:
  • It improves sleep quality regardless of sleep duration. For efficient sleep, the circadian rhythm is quite important. Having melatonin levels below normal limits can lead to sleep disorders.
  • With its antioxidant effect, it prevents damage to cells.
  • It provides protection against infection and immune system diseases. It is extremely important for eye health.
  • It provides protective effect against different types of cancer. Research has shown that melatonin has a significant effect, especially on breast and colon cancer.
  • It has a positive effect on acute pancreatitis and kidney inflammation.
  • The benzodiazepine group of drugs used for sleep disorders and anxiety helps to reduce withdrawal symptoms seen in dose reduction.
  • Reduces the effect of stress factor on the immune system.
  • It has a protective effect on the cardiovascular system.
  • Research has found that people who work at night get sick more quickly and have a greater risk of developing cancer. Women who work at night have an increased risk of breast cancer. A strong immune system is an important hormone for a vigorous and healthy body. Studies have shown that melatonin reduces and suppresses growth in many cancer tumors.

What Foods Are Melatonin Found In?

The hormone melatonin, which protects the body's biological clock, which can only be secreted in the dark environment during night sleep, can protect the person from various diseases. It is claimed that even a low level increase in the hormone Melatonin produces positive results in terms of Health. Especially as people get older, melatonin secretion begins to decrease. In this case, the removal of melatonin from natural sources is of great importance. Consuming melatonin-rich ingredients can help those with sleep problems.

The fruit is rich in Melatonin, which is recommended for people who complain of sleep problems with this feature. The melatonin content in cherries is also good for insomnia problems. While nuts and walnuts stand out as a natural source of melatonin, they contain the sleep hormone melatonin, which helps those with sleep problems thanks to tryptophan. 

How is Melatonin Increased?

If the levels of Melatonin are below normal, it leads to many sleep disorders, especially insomnia. It can also lead to many ailments such as fatigue, weakness, palpitations, anxiety disorder, depression, sexual aversion and dysfunctions. Studies have found that the hormone Melatonin has positive effects on the immune system and increases life expectancy by reducing stress and reducing signs of aging. Although many of the effects of melatonin, a hormone released in the dark, on the body have not yet been proven, scientific research on this subject is in full swing. To increase the level of Melatonin, smoking and alcohol consumption should be stopped altogether. In addition, limiting coffee consumption and avoiding stress increases the release of melatonin. Sleeping before midnight, reducing the amount of food eaten in the evening, increases melatonin production. In addition, not spending time in bed at night with the phone, not using a night light and isolating the room from light completely supports the production of melatonin. If you are having trouble sleeping and you wake up without enough rest, you can have your melatonin levels measured by a specialist physician and, if recommended by the physician, you can take melatonin supplements.

What are the foods that increase melatonin?

Melatonin cannot be taken directly through foods, but tryptophan in the following foods promotes the synthesis of melatonin and increases the release of this hormone:

  • Red meat and fish
  • Bananas, strawberries, apples, oranges, blackberries, cranberries
  • Peanuts, walnuts, pistachios, almonds, chestnuts
  • Eggplant, spinach, broccoli, peas, tomatoes, mushrooms, potatoes, cucumbers
  • Dried beans, chickpeas, sesame seeds, flax seeds

Melatonin Deficiency

High levels of melatonin in the body decreases with age. When a young person has 100 units of melatonin, it drops to 30 units in advanced age. If this level falls more than normal along with other factors, the aging process speeds up, the rate of contracting diseases increases. Factors such as insufficient sleep, stress, restlessness trigger melatonin deficiency. Melatonin deficiency triggers distress and depression, resulting in further increase of the deficiency can create a vicious cycle. 

As is known, the rate of developing cancer in visually impaired people is very low. The reason for this is thought to be related to melatonin.

The environment that sleeps at night must be absolutely lightless. In addition, because it suppresses melatonin production in electromagnetic waves, there should be no television, computer, mobile phone, etc.devices at night in the sleeping areas or should not be plugged into an outlet. Especially the television and mobile phone screen should not be stopped for a long time.

Smoking, alcohol use, excessive coffee consumption, and some drugs can suppress the production of the hormone melatonin.

Many symptoms occur when it comes to the hormone melatonin deficiency. Therefore, melatonin deficiency is easily noticed. These symptoms are as follows::

● Sleep disorders occur.
● A constant feeling of weakness occurs because it causes chronic fatigue.
● Palpitations occur.
 Sexual dysfunction and sexual dysfunction.
● Psychological problems such as depression and anxiety occur.

These symptoms, which occur especially in people who work night shifts or who like to sleep in the morning, cause a decrease in the quality of life. In addition, melatonin deficiency, which causes much earlier aging, brings many diseases. Therefore, the quality of sleep should be considered.

Should Melatonin Hormone Pill Be Used?

Many points need to be paid attention to the increase of melatonin secretion, which is of great importance for human health. It is vital for the release of this hormone, especially if the night's sleep is done in the dark. However, there are some melatonin hormone pills and synthetic melatonin bottles that are ideal for people who have to work at night. The price of the hormone melatonin varies according to the type of drug. Although it is best to take this hormone naturally, which the pharmaceutical industry is particularly focused on, medical support in essential situations helps eliminate many problems.

How Is The Hormone Melatonin Measured?

Melatonin is a hormone people who are looking for an answer to the question How to measure, you need to consult a physician who is an expert in the field. First of all, the condition of the patient is examined by testing the hormone melatonin. If the person has a severe melatonin deficiency, the most appropriate treatment method is determined.

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